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This study focused on the development of resource management programme in sorghum production enterprises for training secondary school graduates for employment in Kwara and Kogi States, Nigeria. Six research questions were answered by the study and six hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05. Research and Development design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 1,624 made up of eight lecturers of Agricultural Education from University of Nigeria Nsukka, 61 Lecturers from Colleges of Education, 499 Teachers of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools, 239 Extension Agents in Kwara and Kogi States, 425 registered Sorghum processors and 392 registered Sorghum Marketers in Kwara and Kogi States. The sample for the study was 692 made of eight Lecturers of Agricultural Education from University of Nigeria Nsukka, 61 Lecturers in Colleges of Education, 200 Teachers of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools, 96 Extension Agents, 170 registered sorghum processors and 157 registered sorghum marketers in Kwara and Kogi States. Five sets of instruments were used for data collection for the study. The five sets of questionnaire were face-validated by one expert each from these institutions: Department of Agricultural Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka; Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Ilorin; Department of Curriculum Studies, University of Ilorin; Department of Crop Production, College of Agriculture, Mokwa, Niger State; and one sorghum processor from Wakilin Mata Sorghum Processing Industry, Ilorin; their suggestions were used to produce the final instrument used for the study. Cronbach Alpha method was utilized to determine the internal consistency of the five sets of questionnaire items in which a coefficient of 0.86 was obtained for programme objectives and packaging procedure, 0.79 for sorghum growing enterprise, 0.84 for sorghum processing enterprise, 0.81 for sorghum marketing enterprise and 0.79 for training procedure with an average of 0.82. Data for the study were collected with the help of six research assistants. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean to answer the research questions and standard deviation to determine the spread of the respondents around the mean in their responses while t-test statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05. Based on the data analysed, the study identified three objectives of each sorghum enterprises (growing, processing and marketing), seven clusters with 105 resource management skills in sorghum growing enterprise, six clusters with 82 resource management skills in sorghum processing enterprise, four clusters with 39 resource management skills in sorghum marketing enterprise, 25 procedures for training secondary school graduates in the three enterprises (growing, processing and marketing) and six procedures for packaging each sorghum production enterprise into a programme. The result of the hypotheses tested showed that there were no significant difference in the mean ratings of respondents on programme objectives, sorghum growing enterprise, sorghum processing enterprise, sorghum marketing enterprise, training procedure and packaging procedure. Based on these findings, the study recommended among others that governments of Kwara and Kogi tates should direct the management of skill acquisition centres in the states to integrate the developed programmes in sorghum production enterprises into skill acquisition centers for training secondary school graduates and other interested individuals for employment in sorghum production.




Background of the Study

Sorghum (sorghum spp.) also known as guinea corn is a source of food for man and livestock. Sorghum according to Farber (2008) originated from tropical Africa and later spread to other parts of the continent including Nigeria. The author added that sorghum is a cereal crop that belongs to the family of graminae. Mask (2011) stated that sorghum crop can be grown on different soils throughout Nigeria. Sorghum produces best on deep, fertile, well drained loamy soil with pH of 5.2 – 6.5. Water requirement of sorghum crop depends on the varieties but moderate rainfall at the early stage of its growth is the best. Sorghum grain in the opinion of Jean (1998) is ranked as the third most important cereal crop after maize and has more economic return than maize. This is because, it provides energy for people of West Africa especially the poor and the less privileged ones. The author maintained that from early 70s to date, about 90% of rural dwellers solely depend on sorghum grain as one of the principal sources of calories when consumed.

Sorghum grain in the opinion to Adamu (2002) has been playing prominent roles in food security of many states in Nigeria including Kwara. The author stated the benefits of sorghum production as follows: the grain is used for compounding poultry feeds such as chicks mash, and broiler starter among others; animals such as camel, sheep, and goats graze on sorghum farms immediately after harvest to eat


stalk, leaves and left over grain (sorghum residues); mature stalks of sorghum crops are used in fence and hut making in the rural areas especially in farm settlements. Other importance of sorghum in relation to animal production according to Ejike (1995) includes the use of sorghum plants to feed livestock especially when converted to silage and hay; it results into appreciable growth and development of animals which consequently brings higher economic returns to the farmers and animal breeders. Sorghum grain is used in feeding animals such as cattle, goats, sheep and horses and serves as raw materials to brewery industries for production of drinks including Maltina and Maltonic. Sorghum grain is used as human food in various forms such as flour meal (Tuwo) pap (Akamu and koko) when adequately processed and prepared. Dry straws or stalks from sorghum are used as fuel for cooking and also serves as stake for yam depending on the varieties of sorghum plant.

Varieties of sorghum seeds according to Adamu (2002) are produced by National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) and distributed through the Ministry of Agriculture/Agricultural Development Project (ADP) to farmers. These varieties are sorghum caudatun, sorghum feteriza, sorgum magaritif (Kaura) sorghum dura (Egyptian) sorghum caffrorum (Kaffir) and sorghum mellitum (sweet sorghum). The researcher observed that about 75% of farmers in the area of the study are mainly interested in growing sorghum dura and sorghum caffrorum varieties. This is because the varieties are high yielding, quick maturing and drought resistant in nature. The straws are found to be very strong when used as stakes in yam production.


Production is the process of combining many activities together in order to make goods and services available to meet the needs of individuals. Burker (1998) defined production as various economic activities aimed at producing goods and services for the satisfaction of human want. The author further explained that these goods and services produced must possess utility, which means that they must be acceptable of satisfying human wants. Olaitan, Igbo, Nwachukwu, Onyemachi and Ekong (1999) viewed production as the process which transforms the resources into useful goods and services using human, capital, land, building and other utility services to effect a change. Production in this study is the process of growing sorghum through various activities from land preparation to the harvest and finally transform the grain into quality products such as flour, paste and drinks among others for human and livestock consumption. Any of the sorghum varieties can be selected for sorghum production in order to establish an enterprise.

An enterprise according to Paulcagham (1999) is organization which involved in adventurous or risk bearing business operations with the aims of achieving the objectives of the business. Christine (2008) explained enterprise as an organization with partially overlapping objectives working together with rules and regulations guiding it for a period of time to achieve expected objectives. In this study, production enterprises, is a group of sorghum production activities in the areas of sorghum growing, processing and marketing governed by guidelines for the generation of outputs that are very useful to the relevant consumers. Each enterprise


uses technologies, competencies, information and other available material and human resources in order to transform inputs to outputs for the benefit of the society.

Human resources according to Olaitan et al. (1999) are those acquired and functional knowledge and skills which individuals can supply and gainfully utilize for purposes of achieving optimum productivity. Human resources in the view of Owoeye (2000) exist in people and consist of potential abilities as well as current attributes such as knowledge, skills, and talents. In this study, human resources are skills and activities like growing of sorghum, processing of sorghum into flour, past and drinks and making processed sorghum available to the consumers.

Material resources according to Ede and Olaitan (2009) are all the assets which may be used to achieve the goals. Ohakwe (1999) defined material resources as the physical and concrete ways which helps to achieve a goal. The author added that material resources are tangible assets that offer services. Among them are raw materials, facilities, machineries and the ground. Facilities in this work are the tools, machines, farm sites and equipment involved in the process of sorghum growing, processing and marketing of its products. Each human and material resource occupies its appropriate positions in management.

Management as viewed by Amoyedo (2007) is the process of allocating inputs (human and material resources) into production by planning, directing, and controlling them for purpose of producing output (goods and services) that are demanded by the consumers so that organizational objectives can be successfully


accomplished. Adidu and Olannye (2006) defined management as the process of enhancing organizational objectives through planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling the activities of an enterprise. Management in this study involves planning, content elements to be implemented and marketing. Planning is the process of taking and deciding about a plan for achieving the objectives of sorghum enterprises. Planning includes statement of objectives, sources of funding, types of personnel and their qualities, budgeting and records to keep, among others. All planning activities are carried out before implementation. Implementation in terms of sorghum production are content elements to be in each knowledge and skill in sorghum growing, processing and marketing while marketing concentrates on marketing sorghum grain products available to the consumers through different channels with their facilities.

Resource management in the view of Mamudu (2007) is the efficient and effective development and allocation of organizational resources where and when they are needed. Such resources may include human skills, productions skills or information technology. Rabiu (2008) defined resource management as the process of planning, allocating and scheduling of resources to a particular task which may typically include man power, machines, money and other materials for leveling and smoothing of that task. In the context of this study, resource management involves the identification and utilization of resources required in planning, implementing and marketing in sorghum enterprise towards achieving planned objectives for each


enterprise. All the activities involved in resource management are developed into a programme as an enterprise.

Development as defined by Robert (2008) is a creative knowledge prepared by industry as a function through research in a working model. The author stressed further that it simplified the constraints and opportunities for progressive change in a physical outlook such as size, shape and function before production. Quirk (1995) defined development as an art of making something clear by studying it more, by speaking or writing abut it in a more details or it is an art of marking something more organized. Development in this study entails the following: objectives of an enterprise; planning activities of an enterprise; an enterprise content elements (sorghum growing, processing and marketing); facilities required in each enterprise and training procedure for each enterprise (sorghum growing, processing, and marketing) for empowering the beneficiaries with skills during training for success in each enterprise.

For effective development of a programme, experts in each enterprise must have significant inputs into the development. For example, in programme objectives, training procedure and packaging procedure, experts like lecturers in universities and colleges of education with relevant background and training in agricultural education must have inputs. For sorghum growing enterprise and facilities experts with sufficient background and training procedure in crop production with bias in sorghum crop must have input; for sorghum processing in processing of grain experts in

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