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A major function of accounting Information System (AIS) is to provide adequate, timely and reliable financial information to users to help them make informed decisions concerning the organization with which they are concerned. To the management who, install the accounting system information generated by the system should prove useful in the effective management of their enterprises. However if there is accounting information system but is not utilized by management, the advantages that would have resulted would never be realized. This research work therefore focuses on appraising the significance of Accounting Information System to the management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo. It was believed that the significance of the study would be to satisfy management on the need to have a functional accounting system, to provide additional literature on the topic among others. Research questions were formulated by the researcher as a springboard to pursue the objectives of the study. Random sampling technique was used in questionnaire’s administration. The result was analyzed using simple percentage. The findings if the research showed that AKTC Uyo maintains accounting records from which financial statements are prepared it was also discovered that management and economic decision are based on accounting information the 25 respondents also agreed that the financial accounting information supplied is useful and capable of solving the company’s problem. Recommendations were also made among which were the employment of skilled or professional accountants, purchase and use of modern machines like computers which will aid automated Accounting Information system. Independence of the accounting department and the involvement of government in the training of managers and accountants were also recommended.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Accounting information system (AIS) is vital to all organizations. (Borthick and clark,1990) and indeed every organization either profit or non profit oriented need to maintain a good and functional Accounting information System. To better understand the term” Accounting information system” the three words constituting (AIS) would be elaborated separated. Firstly literature documents that accounting could be identified into three components namely: Information system, “Languages of Business ”and source of financial information(Wilkinson,1993) secondly ,information is a valuable data processing that provides a basis for making decisions, taking actions and fulfilling legal obligations. Finally system is an integrated entity where the framework is focused on a set of objectives.
Accounting information of an organization are designed and implemented to produce management and operating systems that is essential to the operation of the business. As Akpan(2005) puts it ”Financial management and accounting foster organizational growth, success, expansion and development ”A successful organization must maintain an effective and efficient accounting system which will produces periodic report which guides management on their course of actions as well as evaluate performance Grary et al(1977) adds that business managers need accounting information for measurement of performance and facilitation of planning. Most accounting reports provide information about the past performance of individuals, machines or departments. A manager can avoid past mistakes from re-occurring in the future.
Manager’s ability to succeed depends greatly on their ability to gather and utilize information in their operation. Managers can identify the key variables in the enterprise future and thus establish satisfactory objective and budgets. The data that will also provide information concerning the entity to variety of users and also information for conducting the firm operation and activities. This research will examine how Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC) Uyo manage its Accounting information system in order to remain competitive among other transport companies.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The business world today has become complicated, competitive and turbulent that the need for information cannot be overemphasized. This information has featured as a major fluid in business. Such that non availability or inadequacy of this all important input often seen as the “life wire” of the business would not only be threatening but destructive .Paramount among other aspects of information to the organization is accounting information system (AIS).
This research is set to find answers to the following questions: Does Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo maintain an adequate and truthful accounting information system? Does the level of competence of the personnel play a significant role in success of the business? Does management rely on accounting information system for decision making?
Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo receives the accounts and other financial details from sub- stations around the country and prepares a daily account which is in turn used to prepare a monthly account called ”management account” The problem encountered is the recording of this figures in individual sub- station Ledger manually on a daily basis.
Another problem which this research will consider is the delay in sending report and financial details from sub stations to headquarter here in uyo. Violence, attack ,accidents and violence in some Northern states can cause the delay. we are in information technology where things are done electronically .At AKTC the headquarter is not connected with sub stations via internet. There is no or automated or computerized Accounting Information System. The headquarter rely on information sent to it on paper.
Finally, although the account are being prepared monthly and later used by external auditors for their audit work. The information is not always used for planning and decision making by management. It is prepared as a routine. These problems inform this research work.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the following objectives:
1. To identify, examine and identify the type of accounting prepared and kept by Akwa Ibom Transport Company.
2. To determine if management and economic decisions are based on availability of accounting information.
3. To determine if accounting information supplied is adequate and useful for the operation of the company.
4. To examine the qualification and skills of accounting staff in the company.
5. To find out if there are solutions to the company’s accounting problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the type of accounts or maintained by Akwa Ibom Transport company, uyo?
2. Are management and economic decision based on Accounting Information?
3. Is the financial accounting information supplied useful and capable of solving company’s problems?
5. What recommendation could be given to accounting personnel and department on proper way of carrying out accounting practices.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Accounting information is very unique in itself. The uniqueness of this information depends on its being timely, accurate, complete and concise and satisfying the needs of the users. In order for management to perform the function of planning and decision making, they would need accurate and sufficient information on the company’s specific strength and weakness. The following are the significance of the study.
1. It is hoped that the research would help to educate and sensitize management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company Uyo on the need for an efficient accounting system.
2. The study would also serve as a source of reference material to both student of accounting department and others who might conduct a research in similar or related topic.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is designed to discuss the significance of accounting information system to the management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company Ltd. Uyo. The study will cover most major areas of accounting.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study is limited by lack of resources like funds, paucity of books in the library, time constraint within which the research is to be completed.
Again the work was limited to the information supplied by respondent to the questionnaires and interviews of the staff of the company.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
The following assumptions were made for the purpose of the study.
1. It was assumed that the management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company would co-operate with the researcher by completing and returning the questionnaire to the investigator within a period a three weeks to enable the research to be carried out.
2. It was further assumed that up to 80% of the questionnaire sent would be returned to the investigator to justify conducting the study.
3. Another assumption made was that when approached for supply of information required the management will be willing to supply needed information.
4. Finally the researcher assumed that the supervisor of this project would give the researcher the necessary guidance and useful suggestion so as to complete the study.
1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
The study was organized into five chapters. Chapter one (1) contains the introduction, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of study, limitation of study, operational definition of terms and historical background of Akwa Ibom Transport Company Ltd. Uyo
In chapter two (2) a review of related literature was made while chapter three (3) presents the design of the study.
Data collected were presented, analysed and interpreted through the use of tables and figures to fully explain the funding. This was done in chapter four (4).
The last chapter five (5) contains summary of funding, conclusion and recommendations.
1.10 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
ACCOUNTING: Accounting is defined as the process of identifying, measuring and communicating of economic information to parent informed judgement and decision by users of the information. (Millichamp, 1989)
INFORMATION: This is knowledge derived from data message that reduce uncertainty when received. (Kroanke, 1992)
SYSTEM: This is an integrated entity where the framework is focused on a set of objectives.
ACCOUNTING INFORMATION: Accounting information refers to written information that can be contained in partial or complete financial report, balance sheet, income statement, funds flow statement. (Anderson, 1976) Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) says accounting information refers to the data that are found in financial statements.
ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: The Oxford Dictionary of Accounting defined an accounting system as “The system designed to record the accounting transaction and events of a business and account for them in a way that complies with its policies and procedures.
ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM: This is a “set of human and capital resources within an organization which is responsible for the preparation of financial information obtained from the collection and processing of data” (Crushing, 1982).
MANAGEMENT: EFL Brech defines management as “A social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operation of an enterprise in fulfilment of a given purpose or task, such responsibility involving”.
1.11 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY LIMITED, UYO
In the year 1988, a year after the creation of Akwa Ibom State, directives were given in the presidential budget speech to establish and manage state owned transportation systems. The federal urban mass transit scheme was set up and state government were directed to initiate actions and establish state transport companies that will compliment the federal urban mass transit scheme.
In response to this directive, Akwa Ibom state government considered it necessary to provide cheap, affordable and reasonable means of transportation to the people of Akwa Ibom State. Akwa Ibom Transport Company which is was established initially as a task force on transportation in the newly created Akwa Ibom State to address the issue of checking, controlling and regulating transport fares in the state. The task force on transportation was later changed to Akwa Ibom Transport Company Ltd. Uyo with acquisition of buses to provide transportation services.
The corporation needed independence and autonomy for control and effective administration. In this regard the company was incorporated into a private limited liability company known as Akwa Ibom Transport Company Ltd on the 10th February 1989. It was commissioned by Lt. Colonel Godwin O. Abbt. The then administrator of the state.
Upon incorporation the function of AKTC Ltd. Uyo was changed to essentially making profit to the government. The company has it headquarters and terminal Uyo and substations in Abuja, Lagos, Calabar, Port Harcourt, Jos, Kaduna, Ibadan among other states.
They provide daily transport services and car hire services. It is the transport company with the highest number of passengers daily in the state. It is also worthy of note that not all buses belong to the government. The company also has an arm that provides courier services to the people.
Source: Akwa Ibom Transport information booklet (various year up to 2007)
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