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This study is on a study of the determinants of vocational choice among senior secondary school students. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Esan central local government area of Edo State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staffs and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the study
In recent times, there has been growing interest in the interrelationships between career choice, peer group and parental influence. More importantly the focus has been on the factors that tend to move an individual towards a career. The achievement of children as they grow up has always been a matter of intense interest to parents. The young adolescent in school is expected to set high aspirations for him or herself and to work towards the achievement of those goals. Moreover, children are made to become aware of the prestige that goes along with successful career choice. Vocational Choice. Education, economic incentives, peer group influence and parental influence are sometimes used as pressures to induce the young adolescent into predetermined careers, regardless of the potentials, actual needs and ego of the child. The glamour associated with some careers often turn out to be an illusion. Empirical findings have confirmed to a greater extent, the impact of the family in which a person lives and the family goals and objectives on his/ her choice of career. Trost and Levin (2000) opined that the family influences the behaviour or character of a child. Tella (2003) also found that parents play an invaluable role in laying the foundation of their children’s career. In the same light Wikelund (2006), pointed out that the more intensively parents are involved in their children’s learning, the more beneficial are the achievement effects. Vocational Choice. Thus it is assumed that when parents monitor homework, encourage participation in extra curricula activities, are active in parent’s teachers’ associations and help children develop plans for their future, such children are likely to respond positively in academic activities. Alika and Egbochuku (2009) found that parental influence exerts a lot of influence on the educational attainment of the adolescent especially the socio-economic status of parents. A wide range of occupation is open to every person. The problem of choosing a career is mostly experienced in developing countries of the world. In developed countries, the child is free to pursue any course of his/her choice. The world choice and career are linked together because one cannot pursue a career without choosing a particular set of subjects in the senior secondary school leading to a career.
A career is said to cover the sequence of positions, jobs or occupations in the life of an individual that is his /her working life. It is the total pattern of jobs held during a workers lifetime. It can also be defined as the process of dynamic change, which embraces both the pre-occupational and post retirement years of the individual’s life in service. The layman could use the word career and occupation to mean the same thing. Occupation could be the individual’s main source of earning a leaving that is what he is engaged in at a particular time e.g. teaching, farming etc. One does not just engage himself in any activity or occupation in the name of attaining a goal, rather one has to choose certain subjects leading to pursuit of a career in which he/she is good at. Thus in choosing a career, one should take to that which he feels he is good at, for his/her own benefit and that of the society at large.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that most secondary school students are faced with the problem of choosing a career. This is due to mainly the lack of guidance and counseling services in the schools. They make choice on their own depending on the subject that is being offered and taught in school.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To examine the determinants of career choice among secondary school students
2. To examine the effect of student learning outcome on the choice of career among secondary school students
3. To identify the influence of home background on career choice among secondary school students
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no effect of student learning outcome on the choice of career among secondary school students
H1: there is effect of student learning outcome on the choice of career among secondary school students
H02: there is no influence of home background on career choice among secondary school students
H2: there is influence of home background on career choice among secondary school students
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will facilitate the act of making choice among many opportunities available, since it is aimed at looking at the problems the secondary school students face in making their choice of career. The result of this study will give an educationist an insight into the problem and also help counselors in guiding students to make a more realistic occupational choice, limiting frustrations and withdrawals. The findings of this study will further assist the students in making the rightful choice of career and also help those students to lay good foundations for themselves in their field of interest, ability and talent that will invariably develop the child physically, intellectually and emotionally to become useful to him/her and the society at large. Lastly, the findings of this study will serve as reference material for students of education, the reading public and those who wish to conduct further research in this area.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers a study of the determinants of vocational choice among senior secondary school students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Occupational choice: This refers to psychological preference or desires the individual has regarding work status. It is the continuing process of occupational selection resulting in the eventual attainment of the occupational status.
Adolescent: Those between the ages of 12-18years of age
Peer group: This refers to age group of students. It means the association of, or the social relationship between people who fall within the same age range.
Career: This means the choice of occupation.
Occupational Aspiration: This refers to aspiration for a high or low prestige level of job.
Talent: Any natural or special gift, aptitude eminent ability short of genius.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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