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CHAPTER ONE

                                                             INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of Study

Recent economic and political changes have fostered migration to urban centers the world over, the urban population is growing at an unprecedented rate which is much higher in developing countries (UNH 2003).Urbanization refers to the process in which an increasing number of an entire population are living in cities and suburbs; this phenomena is closely related to industrialization. Africa is witnessing the fastest rate of urbanization about 67% when compared with other developed and developing nations (Cohen, 2006, UNFPA, 2007). Nigeria falls within this context.

The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history with Africa witnessing its fastest rate about 67% when compared with other developing Nations (Cohen, 2006, UNFPA, 2007). It is estimated that more than half of the world population is living in towns and cities, and the number is expected to swell to 5 billion by the year 2030 (UNFPA, 2007).

Developing countries are experiencing a faster rate of urbanization than the developed world; this is manifested more in African where the annual average growth rates were estimated to be 4.7% and 4.6% between the period of 1960 and 1980, and 1980 to 2000 respectively (UN 2000). Urban growth can be attributed to Natural increase; a study has shown though that in developing countries, urban growth and expansion directly leads to rapid population growth and is attributed to migration. Calabar, experiences an annual growth rate of 9.28%, annually, as against the National economic growth rate of 4.8% (Ejaro,2009) This rapid urbanization has raised several challenges for the sustainable development of the Calabar.

The population of Calabar has been steadily growing since its movement from Lagos in September of 1992. It has grown phenomenally from 113,000 in 1976, 378,671 in 1991 to 1.4 million in 2006 (NPC, 2006). This over spiraling growth largely stems from socio-economic and sociopolitical developments in the country. Socio economic migration due to shift of government from Lagos gave rise to families and business conglomerate headquarters moving to Calabar; Creating several employment opportunities. Socio political migration due to incidences such as civil uprisings in the north (e.g Jos uprising and Boko Haram uprising); the spate of kidnappings and hostage takings in the south-south and south east, the rise in armed robbery in various parts of the country and social and ethnic unrests in various parts of the country which added to the migration pull. A greater part of this population, due to high rent prices in the city center, end up settling in the suburbs of the Calabar. The growth rate of settlements in Calabar in 2001 was 66.2% compared to Akwa Ibom which was 40.2% (Jinadu, 2004)

The consequence of this phenomenal population increase over the years is its impact on land and infrastructure, generating a lot of pressure on these resources, which transcends into urban challenges for the sustainable development of the Calabar. These challenges include land cover manifestation in erosion, deforestation, pollution, solid waste menace, housing shortage, inadequate water supply, traffic congestion and high cost of food (Ejaro, 2009). This gives rise to the emergence of urban slumps.

Increasing city population simultaneously affect various climatic and social communal indices, such as the pressure on utilities and basic amenities, green house gas emissions, waste creation and management, urban planning changes to biotic and a biotic components of the environment, deforestation, energy consumption ,pollution , intensive agricultural and ground exploitation etc.

A sustainable urban center/city or eco-city is one designed with consideration of environmental impact. It is inhabited by people dedicated to minimizing its required inputs of energy, water and waste, output of heat, air pollution, carbon dioxide, and methane and water pollution. A sustainable city is one that can power itself and manage its water, energy consumption and development with the aim of creating the smallest possible ecological footprint and the lowest quantity of pollution possible .A Sustainable urbanization is when the process (of urbanization) can maintain the population it harbors within the context of

Water and sanitization, energy, waste management, shelter and housing, finance, slum management, IT and training; at the same time keeping the urban city overall contribution to climate change very minimal (UNH 2007).

Whenever there is a pressure exerted on or inadequacy relative to any of the above indices the resultant development is an urban slum.

A slum as defined by the United Nations as a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard living conditions and squalor, and lacking in tenure security. This term was originally referred to affluent housing areas that are deteriorated due to its inhabitants migrating to other places; but has now come to include failed and informal housing settlements (Wikipedia, 2011).

The urban slum population has risen to an approximate 828 million in 2010 from 767 million in the year 2000 (Green, 2010) with 327 million in common wealth countries (UN, 2006). This drastic rise in the emergence of urban slums has led to the recognition of a new phenomenon referred to as urbanization of poverty by world bodies.

In the United Nations Millennium declaration, which was adopted in 2000, the international community recognized that to halve the population of urban poverty by the year 2015, there is the need for both rich and poor countries to be committed to addressing the needs of the burgeoning population. The goals include those dedicated to eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health battling HIV/AID and malaria and environmental sustainability. Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium declaration and therefore has the responsibility of implementing its goals.

1.2      Statement of Research Problem

The new federal capital city was conceived to be a befitting city, which is a sustainable city where environmental degradation, inadequate infrastructural facilities like electricity, water supply and roads e.t.c that made Lagos most unbearable at the time was addressed. In planning the city three basic principles guided the formulation of the Calabar master plan namely:

 The principle of beautiful city

The principle of functional city

The principle of environmental conservation (D PB, FCDA, 2010)

Federa Capital district plans were developed for an estimated population of 150,000-200,000/district (WRT, 2011).

The population of Calabar in the last census (2006) is estimated to be 1,406,239 with an annual growth rate of 9.28% (NPC, 2006), over a 10year period of study (1987 and 2006). This census figure has since been exceeded in the last four years. Calabar is mainly experiencing an influx of urban migrants from several parts of the country due to attraction of employment opportunities, changes in seat of government e.t.c. On the 7th of September 2011 alone immigration authorities had to escort back 152 persons, trying to enter the CALABAR in search of greener pastures, back to their states of origin (Mukhtar, 2011).

Infrastructural development for the FCC (federal capital city) has already entered the 3rd phase but is still unable to provide basic amenities for the various on-going accelerated developments (encouraged by the federal government) to cater for the population of Calabar.

1.2 Research Question

What is responsible for the rapid urbanization of slum development in Calabar?

What is the impact of rapid urbanization on slum development in Calabar?

What measures are in place to mitigate rapid urbanization in slum development in Calabar?

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this research is to examine the impact of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of slum area in Calabar

The objectives of the study are:

1. Find out what is responsible for the rapid urbanization of slum development in Calabar

2. Evaluate the impact of rapid urbanization on slum development in Calabar.

3. Profile infrastructural facilities and services available (health, education, transportation etc), the state of utilization and challenges.

4. Proffer possible recommendations to the study.

1.4 Significance of Study

The study, impact of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of slum area in Calabar, Cross River State; could be an important research document for policy makers, researchers, academia, public servants and government agencies. It can assist policy makers to further deliberation on urban renewal, urban migration and population increase with respect to infrastructural provisions and development in the Calabar; thus assisting government on effective and efficient policy implementation.

This research study will also present public administrators with relevant information that will assist in urban classification of Calabar’s environmental state in respect of indices of sustainable living; it will also assist them in deliberations and proffering possible recommendations for effective policies. Above all, it is hoped this study will be useful as a reference material for scholars and researchers.

1.5 Scope of Study

The scope of this study will examine the rapid urbanization on the environment and sustainable development of suburb in Calabar; and also the rate of urban sprawl in this area on the bases of its impact on the surrounding environment, and in relation to sustainable development.


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