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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Table of content - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - x
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - 2
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - 3
2.1 Soil Productivity - - - - - - - 6
2.2 Physical Properties - - - - - - - 6
2.3 Chemical Properties - - - - - - 6
2.4 Nutrient Cycling - - - - - - - 7
2.5 Biological Properties - - - - - - 8
2.6 Enhancing the Productivity of Soil - - - - 8
2.7 Sesquioxides in Soils - - - - - - 9
2.8 Elemental Composition - - - - - - 11
3.0 Materials and Method - - - - - - 12
3.1 Description of the Study Area - - - - - 12
3.2 Vegetation - - - - - - - - 12
3.3 Geology and Soil - - - - - - - 13
3.4 Field Work - - - - - - - - 13
3.5 Laboratory Analysis - - - - - - 14
3.6 Particle Size Analysis - - - - - - 14
3.7 Soil pH - - - - - - - - 14
3.87 Organic Carbon Content - - - - - - 15
3.9 Bulk Density - - - - - - - 15
3.10 Total Porosity - - - - - - - 15
3.11 Total Nitrogen- - - - - - - - 16
3.12 Available Phosphorus - - - - - - 16
3.13 Exchangeable Bases - - - - - - 16
3.14 Effective Cation Capacity (ECEC) - - - - 17
3.15 Percentage Bases Saturation (PBS) - - - - 17
3.16 Exchangeable Acidity - - - - - - 18
3.17 Determination of Sesquioxides - - - - 18
3.18 Statistical Analysis - - - - - - 18
4.0 Result and Discussion - - - - - - 19
4.1 Physical Properties of Soil in the Study Area - - - 19
4.2 Chemical Properties of Soils in the Study Area - - 24
4.3 Oxides of Major Elements of Soils in the Study Area - 33
4.3.1 Amorphous and Crystalline Forms of Al and Fe of Soils in the
Study Area - - - - - - - 34
4.3.2 Other Oxides of Major Element in the Soil of Study Area- - 39
4.4 Pedogenic Processes in the Soil of Study Area - - - 43
5.0 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 49
5.1 Recommendation - - - - - - - 50
References - - - - - - - 51
A field study was carried out to determine the “pedogenic characteristics of selected soils in Akwa Ibom State”. The study was carried out in two Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State namely Ibiono Ibom and Urue-offong Uruko Local Government Area The areas are mainly underlain by coastal plain sand and sandstone soils. Soil samples were obtained by pit sampling as the locations were selected along the physiographic position. Two representative locations were selected in each site for sinking of profile pit of dimension 2mx1.5mx2m. The profile pits were described in accordance with FAO (2006) guidelines for profile description. Undisturbed samples were collected from each genetic horizon. Core sample were collected for Bulk Density and Hydraulic conductivity determination while samples were collected for soil chemical analysis. The samples on reaching the laboratory were air-dried and then sieved through a 2mm sieve size and stored for routine analysis. Results obtained from the laboratory were subjected to descriptive analyses. A randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) was used to determine the impact of topography on parent materials. Results obtained from particle size analysis revealed that clay and sand fraction dominated coastal plain sands while sandstone soils had a dominance of silt. Results of other physical properties proved that Bulk density was high in coastal plain soils while hydraulic conductivity was high in sandstone soils. Data for chemical properties affirmed that soil pH and Cation Exchange Capacity had no significant differences between the two parent materials. Organic matter and total nitrogen were both high in the two parent materials. Electrical conductivity, Base Saturation and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity were all high in coastal plain sands while Exchangeable Acidity and available Phosphorous were high in sandstone soil and coastal plain sand respectively. Exchangeable Bases results indicates that Mg, Na and Ca were moderate in the two parent material while K was slow in both parent material. The Elemental composition of the soils was analyzed for the two parent materials. The minerals analyzed were crystalline and amorphous Al203, crystalline and amorphous Fe, Crystalline and amorphous Fe203, Ca0 K20, mg0 and Na0. The ratio of free oxides in the study area were also compared. Results revealed that crystalline and amorphous Al203, amorphous Fe, amorphous Fe203 and NaO were significantly higher (p<0.05) at sandstone soils while crystalline Fe, crystalline Fe203, Ca0 and K20 were significantly higher (p<0.05) at the coastal plain soils.
Agriculture is one of the world’s most important activities supporting human life. From the beginning of civilization, man has used the land resources to satisfy his needs. The land resources regeneration is very slow while the population growth is very fast, leading to wrong land use allocation source. Therefore careful planning of the land resource based on land evaluation which is the process of assessing the suitable and sustainability of land for alternative land uses is necessary.
An understanding of soil pedogenesis can have significant impact in determining nutrient inputs in future cropping, enhancing agronomic value of the soil, and enhancing food security. Soil variation of characteristics across the various landscapes is attributed to variation in topography, parent materials, organisms, time and climate (Source).
Various studies of soil properties on toposequences confirmed that topographic position contribute significantly to the changes in types and characteristics of soils. Such variability in types and characteristics of soils due to variation in soil pedogenesis and development, but also the use of productivity of soils (Mesfin 1998).
Thus, the study and understanding the soils of pedogenic characteristics of and their distribution over a toposequence is crucial for taking decision on soil management practices that will maintain the productive potential of soil. This is because the capacity of soil to function is reflected by measured soil physical and chemical properties (Buol et al., 2003).
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1. To determine the morphological, physical and some chemical properties of soils along a toposequence.
2. To determine the oxides of major elements in selected of the study area.
3. To determine the pedogenic processes in the soils of the study area.
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