Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 105 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦7,000
Sorghum (sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important staple food grain that is grown among smallholder farmers. The yield is low due to inherent low soil fertility because resource poor farmers apply little to no fertilizer to their land due to economic and social factors. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations for optimizing yield and profit from fertilizer use for financially constrained and smallholder sorghum farmers. The treatments consisted of five levels of inorganic N fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1), four levels of inorganic P fertilizer (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 kg P ha-1) and four levels of inorganic K fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg K ha-1) and with some diagnostic nutrients. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times on-station and fifteen times on-farm. The experiment was carried out in 2015 on smallholder farms in Unguwar Chida, (Zamfara state), Zarewa (Kano state) and IAR experimental farm at Samaru, Kaduna state of Nigerian northern Guinea savanna.Result showed that application of 60 kg N ha-1,15 kg P ha-1 and 10 kg K ha-1 gave the highest grain yield (2567.3 kg ha-1) at Samaru, 120 kg N ha-1 and 22.5 kg P ha-1 had the highest grain yield (2432.1 kg ha-1) at Unguwar Chida, and 30 kg N ha-1 and 15 kg P ha-1 obtained highest grain yield (2181.6 kg ha-1) at Zarewa. The economically optimal nitrogen rate (EONR) means were 52 to 34 kg N ha-1 in Unguwar Chida, 45 to 26 kg N ha-1 in Zarewa and 40 to 2 kg N ha-1 at Samaru with the fertilizer cost to grain price ratios (CPs) of 2 to 6 across the locations. Mean economically optimal phosphorus rate (EOPR) were 21 to 10 kg P ha-1 at Unguwar Chida, 20 to 14 kg P ha-1 and 7 to 5 kg P ha-1 in Samaru. Agronomic use efficiency decreased with increasing nitrogen rates and were 11.50, 31.10 and 10.08 kg kg-1 respectively at EONR. Partial factor productivity decreased with increasing nitrogen rate and were 57.91, 65.95 and 61.19 kg ha-1, respectively at EONR. The optimized fertilizer recommendation per hectare for the sites studied were 78 kg N and16 kg P at Unguwar Chida, 51 kg N and 49 kg P, at Zarewa, and 72 kg N, 23 kg P at Samaru. The use of inorganic fertilizer by smallholder farmers in these regions based on this study was very profitable. Therefore, favourable formulated fertilizers blends and policies that will make available straight fertilizers and these blends available to smallholder farmer should be developed.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolar (L.) Moench) is an important staple food grain among many
smallholder farmers of the Nigerian savanna (Ofor et al., 2009). It occupies about 44% of
the total land area devoted to cereals in Nigeria (Ajeibe et al., 2010). The land area put into
cultivation of sorghum in Nigeria is 6.7 million hectares (FMARD, 2012b).
Decline in yield has been identified as major constraint to sorghum production. Average
yield is estimated at 0.6-1.7 tons per hectare against potential yield of 4.0-5.0 tons per
hectare of sorghum (FMARD, 2012b). The yield gap is attributed to poor inherent soil
fertility and low fertilizer use. (Vanlauwe and Giller, 2006). Smallholder farmers apply little
to no fertilizer to their land due to socioeconomic factors including timely access to fertilizer
(SSA-CP, 2005). Improper types of fertilizers, ineffective extension system and
inappropriate fertilizer recommendation which limit the efficiency of fertilizer use reduce
farmer‟s income and increase poverty and food insecurity in the Northern Guinea Savanna of
Nigeria (SSA-CP, 2005).
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is important in developing fertilizer recommendations for
profitability and environmental sustainability (Kaizzi et al., 2012). Low nitrogen use
efficiency in crop production is due to excess application of N. Deficiency of phosphorus (P)
and other essential nutrients limit crop growth due to biotic and abiotic factors (Bekuda et
al., 2007; Kaizzi et al., 2012). Several attempts to provide fertilizer recommendations to
smallholder farmers often lead to inappropriate fertilizer rates that lower the NUE of crops.
1.1 Justification of the Study
Current fertilizer recommendations are aimed at maximizing yield rather than profit. The
fertilizer rate needed to maximize net returns is a function of fertilizer cost relative to
grain prices as the fertilizer prices increase relative to the prices, the economic optimal
rate (EOR) is expected to decrease. Therefore, they need to maximize net returns for a
given amount of money they have to invest in fertilizer which can be maximized by
identifying the right combinations of nutrient, and application rate that will give highest
value to cost ratio (VCR).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study was to provide recommendations for optimizing crop
yield and profit from fertilizer use for financially constraint and small holder sorghum
farmers in the northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. The specific objectives are:
1. To evaluate the yield response of sorghum to N, P and potassium (K) at the selected
sites in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.
2. To determine the economically optimal nutrient rate for N, P and K and the
corresponding value to cost ratio (VCR) at different fertilizer cost to grain price ratio.
3. To determine the N use efficiency (NUE) of sorghum at the selected sites in the
Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR SOIL SCIENCE FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
1. ASSESSMENT OF SOME MACRONUTRIENT STATUS AND MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN PALM OIL MILL SLUDGE DUMPSITES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON SOIL FERTILITY» ABSTRACT The composition of palm oil mill sludge pH 4.2+0.09 was acidic while organic matter, 39.3+0.27, total N 31.2+001, total P 10.4+0.05 and EC 1....Continue Reading »
2. EFFECT OF LONG TERM ROTATION, NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND TILLAGE ON SOIL QUALITY AND MAIZE YIELD IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA» Abstract A long term field experiment was established in 2003 at the Institute for Agricultural Research, (I.A.R) Samaru, northern Guineasavannaof Nig...Continue Reading »
» TABLE OF CONTENT Title page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Table of content v Abstract x CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Obje...Continue Reading »
4. EFFECT OF LAND USE AND SLOPE GRADIENTS ON SELECTED PROPERTIES AND SOIL QUALITY OF AN ALFISOL IN AFAKA FOREST, NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA» ABSTRACT Land use changes from forest into cultivated ecosystems result in negative impact on soil structure and quality. The purpose of this study wa...Continue Reading »
5. RESPONSE OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) TO RHIZOBIA INOCULATION, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS ON AN ALFISOL IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANN...» ABSTRACT Groundnut (Arachis hypogeaa L.) productivity in Nigeria has remained low over the years due to the inherent low fertility status of the soils...Continue Reading »
» ABSTRACT Evaluating the distribution (species and concentration) of chemical elements in the biosphere (rock, soil, water, plants, and air) and the st...Continue Reading »
7. NITROGEN MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR IRRIGATED AND RAIN-FED RICE (OryzasativaL. )VARIETIES IN SUDAN SAVANNA OF NIGERIA» ABSTRACT RiceisoneofthemainstaplefoodcropsanditsdemandisrapidlyincreasinginWestAfrica,hencethereisneedtoincreaseitsproductionatlowerproductioncoststhr...Continue Reading »
8. EVALUATION OF MAIZE-DESMODIUM -SOYBEAN CROPPING EFFECT ON SOIL QUALITY AND CROP YIELDS IN AN ALFISOLS OF NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA, NIGERIA» ABSTRACT 2 Soil quality protection under intensive land use and fast growing economic development has become a major challenge for sustainable resourc...Continue Reading »
9. MAXIMIZING YIELD AND NET RETURNS TO NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN RICE (Oryza sativa. L) PRODUCTION ON LOWLAND SOILS» ABSTRACT Rice (Oryza sativa .L) is an important staple and source of income for farmers in Nigeria. Current fertilizer recommendations for rice do not...Continue Reading »
10. RESPONSE OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) TO RHIZOBIA INOCULATION, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS ON AN ALFISOL IN THE NORTHERN GUINEA SAV...» ABSTRACT Groundnut (Arachis hypogeaa L.) productivity in Nigeria has remained low over the years due to the inherent low fertility status of the soils...Continue Reading »