NITROGEN MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR IRRIGATED AND RAIN-FED RICE (OryzasativaL. )VARIETIES IN SUDAN SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

NITROGEN MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR IRRIGATED AND RAIN-FED RICE (OryzasativaL. )VARIETIES IN SUDAN SAVANNA OF NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

RiceisoneofthemainstaplefoodcropsanditsdemandisrapidlyincreasinginWestAfrica,hencethereisneedtoincreaseitsproductionatlowerproductioncoststhroughadequateNmanagementwithappropriatevarieties.Nitrogen(N)managementisoneofthekeyinputsinriceproduction,especiallyinthesavannasoilswhichisusuallyassociatedwithwidespreadNdeficiency.ThefocusofthisresearchwastoevaluatetheperformanceofriceunderdifferentNfertilizermanagementoptions.Fieldexperimentswereconductedin2012and2013attheresearchfarmoftheInstituteforAgriculturalResearch,TalataMafara(irrigated)andKadawa(rain-fed).ThetreatmentcombinationsincludedtwogranularformsofNasUreaSuperGranule(USG)andGranularUrea(GU)atdifferentrates[0,45.1,72.2,117.3kgN/haandaratebasedonleafcolourchart(LCC)]withthreevarietiesofrice(FARO55,FARO57andFARO52)asthetestcrops.TheexperimentaldesignwasRandomizedCompleteBlockDesign(RCBD)andreplicatedthrice.ThesecondphaseofthestudyinvolvedtheuseofQuantitativeEvaluationoftheFertilityofTropicalSoils(QUEFTS)modeltosimulatericeperformanceasadecisionsupporttoolforsite-specificfertilizerrecommendationinthestudyareas.CropgrowthattributesgenerallyincreasedwithincreasedNapplicationforbothUSGandGU,butwithdelayindaystoheading.ApplicationofUSGat117.3kgN/hasignificantly(p<0.01)increasedyieldandyieldattributes,exceptforgrain-,phosphorus-andpotassium-harvestindiceswhereapplicationofGUbasedonLCCgavethehighestvalues.InteractionbetweenNmanagementandvarietiesindicatedthatapplicationofUSGat117.3kgN/haonFARO52resultedinsignificantriceyieldincrease.Paddyyieldwashighlyandpositivelycorrelatedwithtotalbiomass(r=0.883**),strawyield(0.733**),drymatter(0.351**),plantheight(0.158**)andNuptake(0.701**);butweakandnon-significantnegativerelationshipexistedbetweensoilpH(-0.021)and

availableP(-0.055).Theindigenoussoilnutrientssupplies(INS,IPSandIKS)were25.26–94.50kgNha-1,5.78–28.84kgPha-1and47.48–156.30kgKha-1withfertilizerrecoveryfractionsof0.25–0.61,0.09–0.48and0.27–0.69forN,PandKrespectivelyatbothlocations.TherecommendedfertilizerdosagemodeledbyQUEFTSwere104–140kgNha-1,69–94kgPha-1and23–46kgKha-1fordryseason(TalataMafara)and92–130kgNha-1,34–56kgPha-1and10–19kgKha-1forwetseason(Kadawa).Itwashigherthantheconventional„blanketfertilizer‟raterecommendedovertheyears.ThemodelalsorecommendshigherNwithlowerKforFARO55,butlowerKforFARO57andFARO52;therebyadvocatingforsitespecificnutrientmanagement(SSNM)throughtheuseofdifferentfertilizercombinationsfordifferentsoilconditions.FieldvalidationoftheQUEFTSmodelshowedagoodagreementbetweenobservedandsimulatedyields(R2=0.85,RSME=0.93,RSMEn=<30%andd-stat=0.71),thusconfirmingbetterperformanceofQUEFTSinthericeecosystemunderdifferentnitrogenregimes.                                                                                              PartialeconomicanalysisofriceproductionatbothlocationsrevealedthatapplicationofUSGat117.3kgN/hawithFARO52gavethehighestgrossmarginof₦237,907.22k/haandaprofitof₦2.81kpernairainvested.ResultsobtainedfromthisstudyrevealedthatFARO52usingUSGhadbetterpaddyyieldsandhighestNUE.Furtherstudiesarealsorequiredtoestablishtheappropriateuseofleafcolourchartinthestudyareas.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BackgroundtotheStudy

Rice(OryzasativaL.)isthemainfoodcropofanestimated40%oftheworld‟s

population(Liu,2013;FAO,2008).TheWorld‟smorethanthreebillionpeople

dependonriceastheirstaplefoodandthedemandforriceisrapidlyincreasingin

WestAfrica(FAO,2003).Manypeopleinthemajorriceconsumingcountriesare

livingatsub‐optimalnutritionallevels,thereisneedtoincreasericeproductionby

asmuchas70%inordertoraisenutritionallevelstosatisfycurrentdietaryneeds

(Greenland,1997).Annually,about5millionmetrictonsofriceisconsumedin

Nigeriaandover80%isimportedcostingthecountryahumongousamountof

money(Onuetal.,2015).Localproductionislowandeffortstoincreaseproduction

arehinderedbyhighinputcosts,lowpricesforriceespeciallyunderrain-fed

conditions.

Fertilizernitrogen(N)hasbecomeoneofthekeyinputsinfoodproductionand

despitenumerousresearchinvestigations;ourunderstandingofNmanagementfor

ricegrownunderdiverseagro-ecologicalsituationsisstillinadequate.Cereals

includingrice,wheatandmaize,accountsformorethanhalfofthetotalfertilizerN

usedintheworld.Researchhasalsoshownthatabout50–70%morecerealgrain

willberequiredby2050tofeedover9billionworldpopulation(Yadvinde-Singhet

al.,2011)andthiswillfurtherincreasedemandforfertilizerNatgreatermagnitude

1


unless     fertilizer     recovery     efficiency    in     cereals     is     improved.In     addition,    rice

productionintheNigeriansavannashowedthatthesoilsaregenerallylowin

organiccarbonwithwidespreaddeficiencyinnitrogen(Olaleyeetal.,2008).

1.2StatementofResearchProblem

Traditionally,farmersapplyfertilizerNinseveralsplitapplications,butthenumber

ofsplits,amountofNappliedpersplit,andthetimeofapplicationsvary

substantially.ThenatureandmagnitudeofNlosslargelydependsonthesources

andmethodsofNfertilizerapplication.Theconventionalgranularurea(GU)isa

fastreleasingnitrogenfertilizerwhichisusuallybroadcastedinsplitsthatcould

cause     considerable     loss     through     ammonia     volatilization,     immobilization,      de-

nitrificationandsurfacerunoff.FertilizerNlossasammoniavolatilizationfromthe

floodedricefieldcouldbeashighas40–60%(Jenaetal.,2003).Anothermajor

constrainttoriceproductionindrylandsavannaislackofadoptionofappropriate

improvedvarietieswherethecommonlygrownvarietiesarelate-maturingand

usuallysusceptibletopestsanddiseases.

1.3       Justificationofthestudy

Thedeepplacementofslowreleasingnitrogenousfertilizersuchasureasuper

granule(USG)reducestheNlossaswellasincreasesNuseefficiencyinwetland

rice(Crasswelletal.,1985).Therefore,tominimizethelossesofnitrogen,slow

releaseofnitrogenous            fertilizer    such    as    ureasupergranules(USG)has                 been

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