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The topic of the study; Causes and effects of political violence in Gombe
metropolis. And the purpose of this first chapter is to outline the background of the
study, statement of the problem, research questions, objectives of the research,
scope of the study and definition of basic terms and concepts.
1.1 Background of study
Political violence refers to all collective attacks within a political community
against the political regime, its actors- including competing political groups as well
as incumbents or its policies (Halliru, 2013).
According to Millington (2007), from confrontations during strikes to the street
battles of extremist groups, violence was a feature of interwar European politics, as
countries entered an age of mass politics, governments searched for ways to
integrate their peoples into the political system. He stressed that, yet violence as a
means of political expression and engagement persisted, even in democratic
nations (Millington, 2007). Violent political conflict preceded the establishment of
fascist regimes in Italy and Germany, and civil war in Spain, in Eastern Europe, the
collapse of empire and the founding of new nation-states gave rise to violent
political struggle, in France and Britain, street fighting and rioting raised fears over
the breakdown of order in the western democracies (Millington, 2007).
More so, according to Human Security Report Oxford university (2005) out of 30
major political violence recorded in 2000, there were 23 civil wars, of which ten
were in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These wars are estimated to have resulted in
over four million deaths and have cost the countries in question more than $138
billion (in 1995 prices). However, by the turn of the 21st century, Sub-Saharan
Africa has become the most violent region, accounting for more battle-related
deaths than all other regions combined (Human Security Centre, 2005).
From the years 1999 Nigeria witnessed an unprecedented increase in acts of
political violence across the country arising from the formation of ethnic and
political militia, such as Oduduwa People Congress (OPC), in the South-West of
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