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Thisdissertation titled „An Investigationof the Forms, Facilitators, and Effects of Terrorism on Residents ofthe Abuja Municipal Area Council(AMAC) was conducted among residents and victims of terrorism in hospitals and residents of Wuse and Nyanya districts of the Abuja Municipal Area Council. The objectives of the study are to investigate the forms of terrorism in Abuja; to identify the facilitators of terrorism in Abuja; to examine the effects of terrorism on residents of Abuja, and to suggest ways of ameliorating the plight of victims of terrorisms in Abuja. In pursuit of the above objectives, the researcher adopted the political economic theory. The data forthe study were collected from the victims of terrorism who were receiving treatment in Nyanya and Wuse hospitals, the caregivers of the direct victims in the hospitals of the two study areas and the residents of the two districts. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, where the quantitative data were collected from the residents through a survey.The researcher in the bid to collect the quantitative data employed the multy stage cluster sampling technique. Qualitative data were collected from the victims through in-depth interviews and personal observation of the researcher. The researcher administered 251questionnaires to the residents, conducted14 in-depth interviews with the victims and personal observation with the view of ascertaining the forms, facilitators, and effects of terrorism on the Abuja residents. The data wasanalyzed using SPSS version 20. The findings revealed that terrorism in Abuja involves the use of deadly explosives planted or thrown at targets, armed robbery, and kidnapping. It was also revealed that poverty, unemployment, corruption, the failing family system (family‟s inability to adequately cater for the economic, social, educational needs and control their ward‟s use of social media, peerinfluenceetc) bad governance, ignorance, and religious fundamentalism are the major causes of terrorism in Abuja. The data revealed that so many lives have been lost, properties destroyed, people live in fear, persons displaced and incapacitated by terrorism in Abuja. It was gathered from the findings that education, good governance, provision of employment, especially for the teaming unemployed youth, moral re-orientation of Nigerians can go a long way in reducing terrorism. The study recommends that victims of all forms of terrorism should be provided palliatives‟ throughout their lifetime to act as compensation with the view to cushioning the effects of terrorism on victims in Abuja.There is the need for adequate funding for the security agencies to be able to carry out their programs of security work effectively. This will help the agencies in their efforts toward mounting security checks around all major roads, worship centers, government facilities, markets, and other places the public perpetrates in the nation.


INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study

The term terrorism had its first English usage in 1795. It could be defined as a process in

which an organized group tries to achieve their aims through the use of systematic

violence. Similarly, the concept could refer to the systematic or ferocious form of

violence, a form of guerrilla alternative to conventional warfare. According to Bockstette

(2008), terrorism refers to a political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is

designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminately) through the

violent destruction and victimization of non-combatant targets, such acts are meant to

send a message from an illicit clandestine organization. The purpose of terrorism is to

exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying

force in order to influence the target audience. The above definition also seems logically

incorrect as terrorist may be motivated by other factors like religious, social and

psychological factors.

Section 2656 (F) of the United States Code provides a definition of terrorism. According

to title 22, terrorism is defined as premeditated, politically motivated violence

perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub national or clandestine agents usually

intended to influence an audience (United States Code, 2004)

Section 4 of the terrorist (prevention) act 2012, defines and prescribes punishment for an

act of terrorism: it defines terrorism as the calculated and extreme use of violence or

threatened violence, perpetuated by malice, to cause serious harm or violence against

individuals, governments and their assets with the intention to attaining political,


religious or ideological goals, through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear on

civilian populations.

For the purpose of this study, terrorism refers to an act ofviolence, which is politically,

religiously, or ideologically motivated and perpetrated against both combatant and non-

combatants‟ in order to achieve a particular goal. Specific emphasis will be laid on the

terror act of bombing, armed robbery and kidnappings.

Terrorism has beeninexistence for a long time. Its history goes back to Sicarii Zealots

that is, the Jewish extremist group who were active in the Judea province at the

beginning of the first century, when some prominent collaborators with Roman rule were

killed (Hoffman, 1998). According to contemporary historians, Josephus, in 6 AD, Judas

of Galilee formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the Zealots, theSicarii. Their

terror was also directed against Jewish collaborators, including temple priest, Sadducees,

Herodias and other wealthy elites (Chaliand, 2007). The term “terrorism” was originally

used to describe the action of the Jacobin club (an active social organization of young

men of Jewish origin). During the French revolution, terror was described as justice,

prompt, severe, and inflexible (Maximlien, 2009). In 1885, Italian patriot Felix Orseni

attempted to assassinate the French Emperor, Napoleon 111. The result was that eight (8)

bystanders were killed and one hundred and forty-two were injured. The incident played

a crucial role as an inspiration to the development of earlier Russian terrorist groups.

(Maximlien, 2009).

The history of terrorism in Africa can be traced to the period of colonialism. According

to Suberu and Osagie (2010), ethnic and violent c

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