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                                                Introduction to the study

1.1 Introduction

            This study seeks to investigate the implication of pornography toward students’ academic perfomance as a phenomenon. According to Seto, Maric and Barbaree (2001:37), pornography is the explicit description or exhibition of sexual activity intended to stimulate erotic emotional feelings. The effect of pornography on its viewers‟ feelings, attitudes, and sexual behaviour is a cause for concern. Concerns have been expressed that pornography gives a distorted, poor image of female and male sexuality, violates the idea of freedom and justice, and may lead to sexual violence against women. A few studies have found an association between men’s use of violent pornography and physical abuse of women (Rogala and Tyde‟n 2003:39). Rogala and Tyde‟n (2003:39) further note that pornography has also been regarded as a source of sex information, since it has been found that students learn about the mechanics of sex from pornography.

            The quantity of pornography seems to have increased in the media in the recent past. Advances in technology seem to have made the materials available on the Internet, phones and magazines, giving them a breadth of distribution exceeding any previous accessibility. The number of publications portraying the excessive and uncontrollable consumption of pornography from the perspective of sexual addiction or internet addiction has increased in many developing countries (Taylor, 2005). However Voros, (2009:243) argues that the issue of whether the pathology addiction to pornography, accompanied by a loss of control over one’s sexual impulses in the face of sexually explicit images, is clearly distinguishable from a healthy sexual state, is still a matter of debate amongst sexual health professionals. Christopher, Ferguson and Hartley, (2009:324) state that depictions of humans engaging in sexual acts are not anything new; for example numerous forms of erotic art originating in ancient Greece and Rome and other Asian, African, and European cultures have been uncovered by archaeologists. The Kama Sutra is a well-known Indian tome, outlining various sexual acts and practices that are said to date back to the 2nd or 3rd century.

            Pornography changes the habits of mind the inner private self. Its use can easily become habitual, which in turn leads to desensitization, boredom, distorted view of reality, and an objectification of women. A greater amount of sexual stimuli becomes necessary to arouse habitable users, leading them to pursuer more deviant forms of pornography to fulfill their sexual desires, and its associated with more lenient views of extra marital sexual relation and recreational attitudes towards sex.

            The consumers of pornography can get addicted to it once involved with pornography materials, they keep going for more and more. The material seems to provide a very powerful stimulant or effect, followed by sexual release, most often through masturbation. The pornography provides very exciting and powerful imagery which they frequently recall to mind and elaborate on their fantasies. Once addicted, they cannot throw off their dependence on the materials by themselves, despite the negative implications such as loss of family and problems with the law such as sexual assault, harassment or abuse (Cline, 2002)

            Pornography presents sexual access as relentless a sporting event that amount to innocent fun with inconsequential effects on emotion, perception, and health. Pornography leads to distorted perceptions of social reality and exaggerated perception of the level of sexual activity in the general population. It also has an inflated estimate of the incidence of pre-marital and extra-marital sexual activity, as well as increased assessment of male and female promiscuity (Taylor, 2005).  

            Similarly, male and female viewers do not believe that exposure to pornography has any effect upon their personal views or lives, they more readily internalized abnormal sexual attitudes and increase the likelihood of misunderstanding about sexuality and relationships among individual, students and youths. These are dangerous distortion of the nature of sexuality and social life. Prolonged exposure to pornography fosters the belief that sexual inactivity constitutes a health risk (Taylor, 2005) 

            It could be argued that heavy exposure to pornography leads men to judge their mates as sexually less attractive, resulting in less satisfaction with their affection, physical appearance, and sexual behavior. Similarly there could be a need for more intense sexual pleasure outside of marriage or a young man or woman throwing him/her self to practicalize what he/she has viewed in pornography. Repeated exposure to pornography leads the viewer to consider recreational sexual engament as increasingly important, and change the viewers to being very accepting of sexual permissiveness (Lo, 2005)

1.3 Statement of the Problem

            There has been an increase in the use of pornography in the media, the internet, and in magazines which students are exposed to. This trend has been evident since the 1990‟s due to advances in technology which has made the materials available on the internet, phones and magazines, giving them a breadth of distribution exceeding any previous accessibility. Students’ exposure to these pornography movies has influence on their attitudes and academic performance.

            Locally, it is also alleged that some senior students may invite unsuspecting students to their rooms to watch pornographic movies. Pornographic films are then played; this may lead to arousal, making the unsuspecting students vulnerable and easy targets of unplanned sexual activities. This is what Flood (2009:384) describes as higher degree of sexual explicitness, and its content is more sexist and hostile towards women than other sexual media content.

Students who have had exposure to pornography tend to visit the internet frequently, and the internet is their primary source of self confidence to which their computer time is spent looking for sexual explicit images instead of academic exercise. Doing so may have an effect on their respective relationships, on their mind, on their body and on their heart (Bridges, 2003). Consequently, the academic work is neglected because the focus is changed to satisfaction of pleasure.

            In regards to significant of pornography Fagan (2009) argues that pornography significantly distorts attitudes and perceptions of students about the nature of sexual intercourse. Students who habitually look at pornography have higher tolerance for abnormal sexual behavior, sexual aggression, promiscuity, and rape. They begin to view women and even children as sex objects, commodities or instruments for their pleasure, not as a person with their own inherent dignity.

            The addictive aspect for pornography of pornography has a physiological circumstances acting as one of the attributes for forming the transmission of the feeling to pleasure centres of the brain. It also gives chances of contracting sexually transmitted disease (STds), HIV/AIDS, an unwitting parent in and out of wedlock pregnancy and unsafe abortions.

            Pornography has been described as anti-love, because most individuals are addicted to it both male and female tend to see others as sex objects for exploitation sexually. Sex with a partner, ideally is two-sided both partners receiving satisfaction and not just one side. A physical act involves both an emotional exchange and bond. Pornography is one sided because only one person receiving satisfaction. Pornography is one sided, only one person receiving satisfaction, the emotional exchange is lacking and that can lead to a void afterwards, as pornography is viewed along. As a result, loneliness can be accentuated; loss of self-esteem and depression can also be initiated and augmented (Donald, 2009)

            The threat of pornography abuse has eaten deep to the minds and behaviors of youths and individuals in the campus who engage in the act. The tendency to act out sexually the behaviours of viewed in the pornography that they have been repeatedly exposed to including compulsive promiscuity, exhibitionism, group sex, having sex with minor children, rape and inflicting pain on themselves or a partner during sex. This behaviuor frequently will grow into a sexual addition which they find themselves locked into and unable to change or reverse-no matter what the negative consequences or implications will be in their life (Micheal, 1992)

            Young people in Nigerian Universities Kaduna State University included are growing up in an increasingly complex environment that requires them to take tougher decisions, often without adequate preparation or guidance. Generally, the period of adolescence is a phase in life when young people are particularly vulnerable to any risks, especially in relation to their sexuality, they often lack access to adequate information, counseling and services on issues crucial to their development needs.

            A large proportion of young persons are in their most impressionist years when behavior and character traits have not been fully formed; they reach sexual maturity before they develop mental/emotional maturity and the social skills needed to appreciate the consequences of their sexual activity. 

            It is observed that students from Kaduna State University came from different socio-cultural background and have been exposed to lots of social media movies through friends and self curiosity to discover themselves as youth. The conglomeration of these students from different cultural socialization has promoted the viewing of pornography images in the institution.

1.3 Research Questions

1.     What is the nature of pornography in Kaduna State University?

2.     What are the causes of pornography among students of Kaduna State University?

3.     What are the implications of pornography on students?

4.     What are the measures to tackle the problem of pornography in Kaduna State University?

1.4  Objectives of the Study

1.     To examine the nature of pornography in Kaduna State university

2.     To evaluate the causes of pornography among students in Kaduna State university.

3.     To find out the implication of pornography on students in Kaduna State University.

4.     To provide solutions on tackling pornography among students in Kaduna State University.

1.4 Significant of the Study

            The importance of investigating pornography implications drives from the fact that these sexual behaviours are potentially very important in shaping the behavior of students in our society. It is hoped that the results of this study would help inform the development of awareness programmes that may be implemented at the State University to combat the spread of pornography. The study will also provide information to the field of sociology as well contribute to knowledge which others may share. In all the communities/public will understand the source and how to control pornography.

 The choice of the study location was prompted from the fact that it is a State own University that has a teaming population of youth who can be able to give reasonable opinion on the subject matter and the cost of embarking in a wider area was considered.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study which is on the sociological implications of pornography in Kaduna State University is concerned with the role of pornography in degrading the good moral behaviour of our youths toward achieving the society expectations from them. The location of the study is Kaduna State University main campus. The choice of the University was prompted from the teaming population of youth in the university using laptop/internet facilities to access different things from the net.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Pornography-refers to the explicit representation of sexual activity in print or on films to stimulate          erotic rather than emotional feelings

Student- a student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In its widest use, student is anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taken             vocational education or returning to educational institution.

Obscenity- refers to statement of act which strongly offends the prevalence morality of the time,          is profanity, or otherwise taboo, indecent abhorrent, or disgusting or especially        inauspicious.

Erotical- (A Greek word erus “desire”) are works of art, including literature, pornography, film,      sculpture and painting that deals substantively with erotically stimulating or sexually           arousing descriptions. The term is modern word that described the portrayal of the human anatomy and sexuality with high art aspiration, differentiating such work from           commercial pornography.

Masturbation-refers to the sexual stimulation of a person, genitals, usually to the point of         orgasm. The stimulation can be performed manually by use of objects or tools, or by        some combination of these methods.

Hard-core porn- it explicitly showcases penetrative intercourse between both parties involved          in it.

Soft-core Porn- it can generally be described as focusing on nude modeling and suggestive, but            not explicit stimulations of sexual intercourse

Sex/sexuality- most of the time when we think of sexuality, we think on the specifically genital parts of our bodies and lives. Our sexuality is about who we are, our sense of identity as       men or women, how we see our places in the world, and what we believe about our         potentials and capabilities. It has to do with biology and psychology, with pleasure and    values and with biology psychology, with pleasure and values with relationships, with      ourselves, our friends and those who may become our partners.

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