# DEMONSTRATION OF HOW COUNTER CAN BE MULTIPLEX TO DO COUNTING OPERATION.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A digital system handles digital process and generates digital signals rather than the continuous varying analog signals. Digital signals have only two states. The number of these two states is represented by two voltage bands, one near a reference value and the other near the supply voltage. These correspond to the false and true value of the Boolean domain.

Digital electronic circuit are usually made from a large assemblies of logic gates following the rules of Boolean mathematics, hence this project research work is designed to generate, process and display digital signals numerically known as digital counter. Counters find use as time keeping devices in many fields, such as sports.

Measuring the passage of time with manmade devices represents one of the known accomplishments of modern human civilization with several thousand years of tradition of the time measuring, inventors and engineers of the 18th and 19th century finally got the chance to create a device capable of measuring elapsed time from the moment of activation. This device is the counter. The first mentioning of the device that can measure standard time but also has ability to use counter features came from 1776 by a Frenchman Jean-Meyespauzai, in the early 1970s digital counter being used in official sporting events ushering the new era of extremely precise time measuring device. Today, counter functions can be found in many areas.

1.2       PROBLEM STATEMENT

Most constructed digital counter in the department by previous students can only be activated manually by the use of a button and switch but cannot be operated automatically by sensing in respect to this problem and innovation was added to improve on this problem.

1.3       PROJECT AIM AND OBJECTIVES

In general, the aim objective of this construction work is to demonstrate how counter can be multiplex to do counting operation.

1.4       SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The project work is focused on the construction of a digital counter the can be used in a hall to count the number of people entering and going out. This project cannot be used as a standard time machine to show the standard time in real time. It can only be used to show only elapsed time. Furthermore, then maximum time count is only limited to 9999 or 166 minutes. The circuit does not display actual time but rather the count of clock pulses.

1.5       PROJECT METHODOLOGY

This project research work was achieved using the block diagram shown in figure 1.1

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