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Productivity is one of the important elements in construction planning and scheduling. However, construction industries in Nigeria are currently lacking in data with regard to productivity of the building’s construction activities especially in tiling works. The focus of the study was to use work study approach to empirically establish labour output for wall tiles for the Nigeria construction industry as well as to establish relationship between the influential factors and productivity. A total of 46 gang sizes of tilers for wall tiles 400mm x 300mm x 5mm, width > 300mm long side horizontal,32 gang sizes of tilers for wall skirting 400mm x 50mm high and Riser 400mm x 150mm high were observed within Kaduna state and Abuja. Physical observations and measurement of work outputs were conducted through work study approach. The data collected were analyzed using inferential data analysis techniques. The inferential tools made use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple comparison, paired sample t-test to compare two groups that are related and independent t-test to compare two group that are not related due each activities to assess and examine the influence of the various labour productivity factors on the outputs of the workers observed.. The result of the analysis carried out established general average output values per day of; 25.11m2, 31.37m, 23.41m for wall tiles 400mm x 300mm x 5mm, width > 300mm long side horizontal with backing, wall skirting 400mm x 50mm high and riser 400mm x 150mm high ,Ceramic tile 5mm thick in tiling work respectively. However, the test of difference conducted in order to analyze and investigate the extent of influence of the productivity factor discovered that, even though differences existed between outputs for wall, skirting and riser in tiling, the tests conducted confirmed    they were quite insignificant, the mode of employment of tradesman observed had a tremendous effect on their output, those on daily paid term produced more on site in their outputs. The research concluded by recommending the outputs established to Contractors so as to exploit the output figures extracted according to productivity factors in order to optimize the productivity of their workers and profitability.



1.1       Background to the Study

A building is one of man’s basic requirements after food and can be used

to determine the development of any nation. Research has shown that the cost of

building a house is high and principally depends on cost of labour and materials

(Maloney, 1983, Omange, 2000).

Mohammed et al (2011) stated that the construction industry lagged due to

insufficient research in the area of productivity. Methods for improving

construction productivity to assist managers in identifying productivity barriers

and offer solutions were limited. In contrast, there are few studies of enhanced

productivity in the construction industry. In reality, increasing productivity

benefits the stakeholders’ in several ways: Projects are completed more quickly;

Project cost is lowered; the contractor can submit more competitive bids; and the

project can be more profitable.

The construction of a house is capital intensive and seems to discourage

some people from building personal houses. Government concerted effort at

housing provision since independence in 1960 through the various national

development plans seems not successful. Labour force in the building

construction industry fall into skilled and unskilled. The financial implication of

using any of the trades contribute to the cost of construction. The utilization of

labour force in the construction industry accounts for a significant proportion of

the cost of buildings (Udegbe, 2007). Productivity improvement in the housing


construction sector may contribute to the supply of more affordable housing by

Nigeria Construction Industry (NCI). A sustainable improvement in productivity,

when associated with economic growth and development generates non

inflationary increases in wages and salaries. As low productivity causes cost and

time overruns in construction projects. Construction output is important especially

in a developing country like Nigeria where most of the building construction work

is still on manual basis (Faki et al, 2010).

Estimating is one of the key fundamental functions of the Quantity

Surveyor. Estimates are very vital to clients when making decisions and therefore,

client expect from estimator’s useful and objective information from estimator.

The sustainability and success of the construction industry depends greatly

on the level of accuracy in project estimates. The consequences of adopting

inaccurate estimates are quite enormous and overwhelming (Mohammed, 2009).

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

It is very clear that there is no known standard theoretical yardstick to

determine the financial value of daily output (Udegbe, 2007).The dynamics of the

factors that affect the productivity of construction workers in Nigeria are not well

understood. The previous works on other trades presented reports without taking

cognisance of Building and Engineering Standard Method of Measurement

(BESMM) produced by Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyor as a guide that

provide a uniform basis for measuring construction works and embodies the

essentials of good practice, in order to take care of the peculiarities of the

Nigerian construction industry. This study was set out to empirically determine


labour outputs for wall tiles as reviewed in BESMM in the Nigerian construction



A review of literature revealed that no single and uniform collection of

labour constants is used within the construction industry. It was found that even

though, the Nigerian labour output are published in Nigeria building prices books

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