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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Interests in the role of air quality in health and disease date back to antiquity.
Hippocrates in his treatise on “Airs, water and places” drew attention to the impact of polluted air, among other transmission media, on disease burden. For centuries, the emphasis on pollution associated air problems was mainly placed on outdoor air; concerns about air quality are fairly recent in comparison (David, 2010).
In the United Kingdom, air quality awareness, as cited by Leslie (2000), was stimulated by the introduction of the Clean Air Act of 1956 air quality is influenced by factors such as building materials, paints, ventilation system, heating system, carpeting, fabrics, volatile cleaning fluids, solvents, cooking, use of fossil fuel, personal care products, household pets etc., all of which contribute to the mix of biological and chemical aerosols in the air Outdoor air source also contribute to the air milieu (Olopade, 2010).
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2009), defines air as air within a building occupied for at least one hour by people of varying states of health. This can include the office, classroom, transport facility, shopping centre, hospital and home air quality can be defined as the totality of attributes of air that affect a person's health and wellbeing.
Bioaerosols could be bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, protozoa, house dust mites, scales from shed human skin, pets and human. The growth and dispersion of the microbial component is enhanced by the warm microclimate obtained in efficiently warmed homes, offices and works. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems can serve as growth media for bacteria, viruses and moulds, as well as recycling module for dust, fibers, and allergens (David, 2010).
Air pollution refers to chemical, biological and physical contaminations of air. (NHMRC, 2009). It may result in adverse health effect. In developing countries like Nigeria, the main source of air pollution is biomass (e.g wood, agricultural products) which contains suspended particulate matter like nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, in industrialized countries, in addition to NO2, CO and formaldehyde, radon, asbestos, mercury, human-made mineral fibers, volatile organic compounds, allergens, tobacco smoke, bacteria and viruses are the main contributors to air pollution. (David, 2010).
In the last several years, a growing body of scientific evidence has indicated that the air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air in even the largest and most industrialized cities. Other research indicates that people spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors. Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greater due to exposure to air pollution indoors than outdoors (Hodgson, et al. 1986). Health effects from air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later. Immediate effects may show up after a single exposure or repeated exposures. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person's exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Symptoms of some diseases, including asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, may also show up soon after exposure to some air pollutants.
The likelihood of immediate reactions to air pollutants depends on several factors. Age and preexisting medical conditions are two important influences. In other cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological pollutants after repeated exposures, and it appears that some people can become sensitized to chemical pollutants as well.
The World Health Organization estimates that air pollution is responsible for roughly 1.6 million deaths each year, from acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and other diseases. Indoor pollution from biomass contributes to about 2.6 percent of the global burden of disease, actually kills more people every year than HIV and maybe even malaria, and yet nobody knows about it. Thus, “if we can accomplish bringing sensitive or pay attention to this problem, and use it to influence policy and help people who are poor and would otherwise have no opportunity to have more efficient stoves, it will be very delighteful.” (Olopade, 2009).
The first-ever country-by-country estimates of the burden of disease due to air pollution highlight the heavy toll solid fuel use takes on the health and well-being of people around the world. The countries most affected are Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Togo and Uganda. In 11 countries -- Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan and the United Republic of Tanzania -- air pollution is to blame for a total of 1.2 million deaths a year. Globally, reliance on solid fuels is one of the 10 most important threats to public health (Gold, 1992).
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Exposure to air pollution from solid fuels has been linked to many diseases, the health threat posed by this fuel sources and biomass is generated mostly when they are subjected to combustion. (Olopade, 2009). Combustion activities in the laboratory produce gases such as; CO, CO2 NO2, and NO, which are poisonous to human health. The maximum permissible concentration levels of the gases are stated in ASHRAE Standard 62 and there are no records of existing empirical studies on the actual concentration levels in the industries under study. The study therefore, seeks to establish the presence and concentration levels of the pollutants in the industries due to combustion activities.
1.3 Research Questions
In line with this, the following research questions are formulated.
i) What is the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) status of industries in Idu industrial area, Abuja?
ii) Do combustion pollutants exist in the air during combustion in the industries and in what quantity in Idu industrial area, Abuja?
iii) Do the combustion pollutant exist in quantities that exceed limits prescribed by Standards (ASHRAE and NAAQS), for a healthy working Air Quality in Industries in Idu industrial area?
iv) The influence of the existence of combustion pollutants on the air quality in Industries in Idu industrial area?
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to assess the influence of combustion generated air pollutants on the air quality of Industries in Idu industrial area, Abuja
The objectives are;
i. To study the concept and criteria for ventilations of buildings especially Industries in Idu Industrial areas, Abuja
ii. Identify the HVAC system requirement for Industries in Idu industrial area, Abuja.
iii. Estimate the amount of combustion generated air pollutants in the selected lndustries in Idu industrial area, Abuja
`iv. To assess the impact of the pollutants on the air quality in Idu industrial area, Abuja
v. To recommend measures for improving the air quality in the Idu industrial area where such pollutants are present.
1.4 Significance of The Study
This research will be of importance to both the staff and residentss prone to the use of laboratory because on completion, awareness will be created on the resultant effects of the combustion activities within the industries on the air quality. Thus, the content of this research work also stands to be beneficial to government agencies like;
Control of Substance Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH), World Health Organization (WHO) and other health organization in their ongoing campaign to create awareness on the dangerous effects of poor air quality (Olopade, 2010).
In like manner, it will draw the attention of workers in the industrial area, residents and other commercial activities with factual data on the need for a healthier working and living environment for both staff and resident in the area. The research will also help building designers to adhere to the criteria for Heating Ventilation and Air
Condition (HVAC) system in the design of buildings especially in the design of industries and also emphasis the need for adequate maintenance of the HVAC system in buildings.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this research work is confined to the air quality and not the entire environmental quality which comprises of land, water and noise pollution. Also, the research focuses on just the air pollutants generated from combustion activities and not to the entire environmental pollutants. The research also studies only the effects of the combustion pollutants on the air quality of only some selected industries in Idu industrial area, Abuja.
The experimental value of this research is limited to the accuracy of the IMR 1400C gas analyzer adopted for the measurement of the combustion generated pollutants in industries in Idu industrial area. Also, the response of the targeted population will be based on their perceptions on how the presence of the combustion pollutants appeals to their sense(s).
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