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Immunization is one of the most cost effective public health interventions, childhood
immunization services is provided free by Nigeria government through the Primary
Health Care Development Agency. Despite the successes recorded over the years, routine
immunization coverage has remained low in our rural communities and a major challenge
in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality in our country. The objective of this study
was to assess the routine immunization coverage and its determinants in Izom
community, Gurara LGA of Niger state Nigeria.
A cross–sectional community based study conducted between February and May 2015.
Cluster sampling technique was used while structured interviewer questionnaire was used
to collect data through house to house visit. Vaccination coverage was assessed using
immunization card and maternal history and mother‟s knowledge was graded as good if
she scores 3 points out of maximum points of 6. Data analysis was done using Epi info
for descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression to identify factors that are independently
associated with full immunization coverage.
A total number of 360 mothers or caretakers and their children whose ages were between
12-23 months old, participated in this study. The mean age of the mothers or caregivers
was 28.1±7.032. The levels of knowledge of the mothers or caregivers on the various
aspects of routine immunization was poor (8.3%) but their attitudes towards
immunization was good (86.6%). The full immunization coverage was low (35.5%) and
factors that were significantly associated with full immunization of children were
maternal education status of mothers. Mothers with lower levels of education (primary)
had their children fully immunized, sources of information on routine immunization with
those who got their information from health workers had 57.0% (P=0.001) of their
children fully immunized and place of child birth with 46.9% of those who delivered at
health centre had their children fully immunized. However, only sources of information
on routine immunization were found to be independently associated with full
immunization status of children. Mothers or caregivers who got information from health
care workers were 0.411 times more likely to fully immunize their children than those
who got their information from others sources.
A better health education, appropriate information dissemination and strengthening of
communication skills among the health care workers could assist in improving
immunization coverage in the community.
Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an
infectious disease typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the
body‟s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or
The history of vaccination started way back in 1796 when a British physician Edward
Jenner performed an experiment and discovered that inoculation of a person with
relatively harmless disease agent could protect the person from a more dangerous disease,
the process he called vaccination which was derived from the Latin word for cow
“vacca”. Immunization has been found to be a proven tool for controlling and even
eradicating disease and one of the greatest achievements in the field of preventive
medicine was intensified Immunization campaign carried out by the World Health
Organization (WHO) from 1967 to 1977 that led to eradication of smallpox in 1980.3,4
Eradication of poliomyelitis is within reach. Since Global Polio Eradication Initiative in
1988, infections have fallen by 99%, and some five million people have escaped
There are two main strategies for administration of vaccines, Routine Immunization (RI)
and Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIA). RI is a set of vaccinations in a schedule
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