DETERMINANTS OF ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AMONG CHILDREN AGED 12-23 MONTHS IN IZOM DISTRICT, GURARA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE

DETERMINANTS OF ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AMONG CHILDREN AGED 12-23 MONTHS IN IZOM DISTRICT, GURARA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGER STATE

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SUMMARY

Immunization is one of the most cost effective public health interventions, childhood

immunization services is provided free by Nigeria government through the Primary

Health Care Development Agency. Despite the successes recorded over the years, routine

immunization coverage has remained low in our rural communities and a major challenge

in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality in our country. The objective of this study

was to assess the routine immunization coverage and its determinants in Izom

community, Gurara LGA of Niger state Nigeria.

A cross–sectional community based study conducted between February and May 2015.

Cluster sampling technique was used while structured interviewer questionnaire was used

to collect data through house to house visit. Vaccination coverage was assessed using

immunization card and maternal history and mother‟s knowledge was graded as good if

she scores 3 points out of maximum points of 6. Data analysis was done using Epi info

for descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression to identify factors that are independently

associated with full immunization coverage.

A total number of 360 mothers or caretakers and their children whose ages were between

12-23 months old, participated in this study. The mean age of the mothers or caregivers

was 28.1±7.032. The levels of knowledge of the mothers or caregivers on the various

aspects of routine immunization was poor (8.3%) but their attitudes towards

immunization was good (86.6%). The full immunization coverage was low (35.5%) and

factors that were significantly associated with full immunization of children were

maternal education status of mothers. Mothers with lower levels of education (primary)

had their children fully immunized, sources of information on routine immunization with

those who got their information from health workers had 57.0% (P=0.001) of their

children fully immunized and place of child birth with 46.9% of those who delivered at

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health centre had their children fully immunized. However, only sources of information

on routine immunization were found to be independently associated with full

immunization status of children. Mothers or caregivers who got information from health

care workers were 0.411 times more likely to fully immunize their children than those

who got their information from others sources.

A better health education, appropriate information dissemination and strengthening of

communication skills among the health care workers could assist in improving

immunization coverage in the community.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an

infectious disease typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines stimulate the

body‟s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or

disease.1,2

The history of vaccination started way back in 1796 when a British physician Edward

Jenner performed an experiment and discovered that inoculation of a person with

relatively harmless disease agent could protect the person from a more dangerous disease,

the process he called vaccination which was derived from the Latin word for cow

“vacca”. Immunization has been found to be a proven tool for controlling and even

eradicating disease and one of the greatest achievements in the field of preventive

medicine was intensified Immunization campaign carried out by the World Health

Organization (WHO) from 1967 to 1977 that led to eradication of smallpox in 1980.3,4

Eradication of poliomyelitis is within reach. Since Global Polio Eradication Initiative in

1988, infections have fallen by 99%, and some five million people have escaped

paralysis.

There are two main strategies for administration of vaccines, Routine Immunization (RI)

and Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIA). RI is a set of vaccinations in a schedule


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