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Retreatment is indicated in tuberculosis (TB) patients if they fail or default from initial
treatment or relapse after initial treatment success. TB retreatment in Nigeria grew from
2,395 in 2002 to 8,787 in 2011. Adamawa state alone from 2002 – 2012, recorded an average
of 177 retreatment cases per year. Retreated patients transmit TB including potentially drug
resistant-TB, waste drugs and incur extra cost to TB Control Programme. We investigated
retreatment determinants in smear positive patients, age ≥15 years, taking first line anti-TB
drugs (FLADs), in Adamawa state from 4th quarter 2012 to 2nd quarter 2013.
Case-control study conducted. Cases, pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, on retreatment with
FLADs, and with pretreatment smear positive result. Controls, PTB patients, with
pretreatment smear positive result and converted to smear negative in 5th month while on the
initial FLADs, and in whom there is no default, failure or relapse. Sociodemographic,
knowledge and attitude, treatment adherence and disease severity factors obtained using pre-
tested questionnaires through physical interview and data abstraction from TB registers. Data
cleaned and analysed using Epi Info version 3.4.3 at 5% alpha level of significance and 95%
confidence. Odds ratio (OR) used to compare association. Ethical clearance obtained from the
state Research Ethics Committee (Ref.No S/MOH/1131/I/24).
Of 243 patients studied (81 cases, 162 controls), mean age 35.2 11.7 years (cases 37.8
10.6; controls 33.9 12.0), 70.4% young adults 20 – 40 years (cases 71.6%; controls 69.8%),
69.1% males (cases 79.0%; controls 64.2%), 59.3% married (cases 56.8%; controls 60.5%),
and 46.1% attained secondary education (cases 44.4%; controls 46.9%).
Determinants identified– Knowledge on causative agent based on score below its mean
80.74% crude odds ratio (cOR) 1.98; 95% CI: 1.05-3.74 and attitude on measures to
improving health while on anti-TB based on score below its mean 42.47% (cOR 1.77; 95%
CI: 1.01, 3.08). Male gender (cOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.13-3.92), unemployment (cOR 1.9; 95%
CI: 1.09-3.30) and clinic location ≥5 km from residence (cOR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.12-6.16).
Smoked till at least onset of treatment (cOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.42-4.26), daily smoking ≥11
cigarettes (cOR 3.2; 95% CI: 1.29-7.75), alcohol consumption till at least onset of treatment
(cOR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.39-4.29) and alcoholism (cOR 3.1; 95% CI: 1.19-7.92). Ever
discriminated against (cOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.17-4.16), ever missed clinic (cOR 2.3; 95% CI:
1.25-4.03), ever missed anti-TB doses (cOR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.28-4.08), TB/HIV comorbidity
(cOR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.07-3.56), concurrent drug use (cOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.17-3.74) and used
of social support and adherence measures (cOR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.88).
Independent predictors identified were distance ≥5 km from house to clinic adjusted odds
ratio (aOR) 3.69; 95% CI: 1.38-9.90 , ever smoking ≥11 cigarettes daily (aOR 3.21; 95% CI:
1.18-8.71), negative attitude on measures to improving health while on anti-TB (aOR 2.28;
95% CI: 1.15-4.52), TB/HIV comorbidity (aOR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.23-5.06) and use of social
support/adherence measures (aOR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.17-0.78).
The State and Local Government Areas are recommended to site clinics closer at distances of
less than 5 km from homes, introduce tobacco dependence and cessation programme in
clinics, closely monitor TB-HIV comorbidity, promote healthy measures to improving health
while on anti-TB and reinforce social support and other adherence measures.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, smear positive, retreatment, first line anti-tuberculosis drugs,
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background information
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by any pathogenic member of
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC).1,2 The most common of MTC is
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