ASSESSMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING

ASSESSMENT OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The world health organization’s infant feeding recommendation defines exclusive breastfeeding as no other food or drink, nor even water, except breast milk (including milk expressed or from a wet nurse) for 6 months of life, but allows the infants to receive ORS, drops and syrups (vitamins, minerals and medicines)

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. As a global public health recommendation, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 (six) months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health.

Adequate knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding is a central implement that navigates the course of breastfeeding stability and distinctiveness amongst mothers. Insufficient and detective information with absence of support throughout this practice leads to immature cessation of breastfeeding. Primigravidas are a vulnerable group with approximately more than half of the percentage of early breastfeeding drop outs being primiparas who are deficient of involvement and dependable intelligence of exclusive breastfeeding compared to multiparas. Lack of confidence to exercise existing learnt knowledge leads to shyness, insecurity and frustration resulting to optimal infant feeding methods. Health Professional are thus, responsible for conceivable envelopment that yield to an upsurge of exclusive breastfeeding by centering extra determinations to primiparas on the significance and structuring self confidence of breastfeeding practices and knowledge throughout the pre natal and post partum period. (Laanteran, Pokki, Ekstrom and Pietila 2010)

Fair brother and Stanger – Ross (2009), mentioned that the majority of mothers apprehend the health benefits of breast milk to their infants with correspondence to it being the ultimate meal for newborns. In addition, breast milk benefits to the immune system of infants inhibiting infantile infections like gastro intestinal and respiratory.

Breast milk is well acknowledged for its abundance in minerals, maternal antibodies and basic nutrients consisting of protein, vitamins, and carbohydrates. The reconstitution being well combined, nitrifying and compatible to the baby’s metabolic system making it most convenient meal for babies. Moreover, bonding and familiarizing by closeness, tender touching, secing and smelling one another during each feed and vice versa is a mutual aim and intent for breastfeeding.

Almost all mother’s pass through both short and long term physical challenges during breastfeeding, particularly, primigravidas become exposed with the physical challenges associated with exclusive breastfeeding that seems slightly unexpected for them. Short and longer term physical impacts caused a number of women to feel surprised about the physicality of exclusive breastfeeding. Majority are astounded by excruciating consequently, to compromise baby – mother relationships. Occasionally, triggering hesistance to continue the practice of secondary to physical vulnerability. A few may experience “Sore nipples” which is the package of challenges, whereas mastitis (breast infection) is also a complication that contains serious emotionally and physical consequences, as an outcome resulting in anatomical changes which is a great challenge (Kelleher 2006).

Some women also experience inverted nipple whereby the nipple, instead of pointing outward, is retracted into the breast. In some cases, the nipple will be temporarily protruded if stimulated, but in others, the inversion remains regardless of stimulus. The most common causes of nipple inversion include;

-           Born with condition

-           Breastfeeding

-           Breast sagging, drooping ptosis.

-           Breast cover including breast carcinoma, pagets disease and inflammatory breast cancer

-           Breast infections or inflammation such as mammary duct, ectasia breast abscess or mastitis.

-           Gynecomastia

-           Pregnancy

-           Sudden and major weight loss

-           Tuberculosis

Individual with inverted nipples may find that their nipples protract (come out) temporarily or permanently during pregnancy or as a result of breastfeeding. Most women with inverted nipples who give birth are able to breastfeed without complication, but inexperienced mothers may experience higher than average pain and soreness when initiating attempting to breastfeed. The use of a breast pump or other sunction device immediately before feeding may help to draw out inverted nipples.

On the other hand, (Kellecher 2006) mentioned that other unanticipated nature of somatic implications including, increased sensations during the sucking process, leakage, latching, let down and immobility. Among, the most commonly cited specific forms of pain and discomfort related to exclusive breastfeeding are engorgement, nipple pain, raw breast, cracked and bleeding nipples and uterine contractions or occasionally termed cramping or after pains.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Despite public awareness on exclusive breastfeeding, pregnant mothers do not breastfeed their infants exclusively probably due to their jobs or the fear of them having their breast sagged or flabby. This threatens the health status of infants such as exposing the infants to infection and diarrhea which has been claiming lives at an alarming rate. This has prompted the researcher to work on this course of study, so as to improve pregnant mothers awareness, attitude and acceptance towards exclusive breastfeeding and invariably reducing the complications of children whom are not exclusively fed on breast milk.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

i)         To ascertain the attitude of pregnant mothers towards exclusive breast feeding.

ii)        To find out the positive attitude of pregnant mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding.

            iii)       To find out the misconceptions attached to exclusive breastfeeding.

            iv)       To explain the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This project will enlighten the pregnant mothers on the benefits and importance of exclusive breastfeeding, which will encourage them in the practice of exclusive breastfeeding thus helping them to reduce morbidity and mortality rate of infants.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

i)         Do pregnant mothers understand what exclusive breastfeeding means?

ii)        What are the positive attitudes of pregnant mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding?

iii)       What are the negative attitudes of pregnant mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding?

            iv)       What are the known advantages of exclusive breastfeeding?

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research study was carried out in television health care centre, Chukun LGA in Kaduna State on “A study on the attitudes of pregnant mothers toward exclusive breastfeeding with particular reference to pregnant mothers. Television health care center Sabo Chukun LGA in Kaduna state is known for the following social amenities such as clinics, market, good electricity.

1,7       LIMITATION OF STUDY

The following limitation were encountered during the course of this study

            -           Financial constrant

1.8       OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

            ATTITUDE: One’s thinking and feelings about something

PREGNANT: Carry developing offspring within the body.

MOTHER: Female parent that has a baby

WOMAN: An adult female human

BABY: An infant that is yet to walk

FEEDING: Is a process of eating

EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING: use of is absolute breast milk with no weaning diet or water from 0 – 6 months.

ADVANTAGE: The benefit of practice or importance

HEALTH: A state of well being

BREAST: The mammary gland located on the anterior part of the chest.

BREAST MILK: Whitish milky coloured liquid expressed from the cell of the mammary gland or a natural milk from human breast.

BREASTFEEDING: Supplying a baby with food nutrient from the breast milk.

BOND: Something that forms a connection.

IMPORTANT: Having a positive effect.


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