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Revenue is a very essential element in the running of any administration or government, this government could be federal, state, or local or even private establishment or organization. This is because it is through the revenue as a source of finance to the organization that the said organization will be able to carry out its activities or affairs efficiently and effectively.
This revenue could mean money which comes to a person, organization or government and such source could be property, shares, services etc. Revenue could also mean money raised by a person, organization or government of a country or state from many sources of taxes or levies available to it.
In another perspective, revenue could mean money that an administration or government receives over a period of time especially from selling of goods or services. Therefore, revenue as a source of income or finance is very essential for the running of the affairs or activities of an Islamic administration so that it can provide essential services to the people as expected and appropriately.
Just like many other systems of administrations the world over, the Islamic system of administration also encounters lot of problems financially especially in revenue generation, such as;
i. Good leadership
ii. Limited sources of revenue
iii. Inability to utilize properly the revenue so collected by the leadership, no matter how little or small.
iv. Non-challant attitudes of those who are suppose to remit the revenue to the administration.
The above problems and many other similar problems with regard to revenue generation and utilization in an Islamic system of administration could be surmounted or overcome through;
i. Installment of good leadership.
ii. General education awareness among the Islamic communities on the importance of revenue for the general survival and efficiency of Islamic system of administration.
iii. Truthfulness on the part of those who administer revenue.
Generally however, the area or scope of this project write up will cover the general sources of revenue to an Islamic system of administration, highlighting both sources, administering the revenue and the general problems associated with the generation of the revenue and its administration or generally finance to the administration and these problems include the followings:-
i. Good leadership:
It is a well known fact that no system can operate effectively and efficiently if the leadership is defective or if it is not up to the task of delivering the services to the people it is suppose to deliver. Though must of the leadership in an Islamic system of administration are hereditary, for example in the Sokoto caliphate which is the case study of this project, but it is important to appoint leadership that is trustworthy, faithful to the people and the system and efficient and effective to deliver even if hereditary.
ii. Limited sources of revenue:
There is no system of administration that is said to be devoid of any problem the world over, the prominent problem being that of limited source of revenue. The Islamic system of administration especially the Sokoto caliphate as the case study is not an exception. In fact the sources are so limited especially now almost nearing to non existent.
iii. Inability to utilize the revenue properly:
The inability to utilize the revenue so collected by the leadership of an administration no matter how large or small is very essential for the efficient and effective running of an administration but essentially this is much lacking in many administration, and this is a concern.
iv. Non-challant attitudes of collectors of revenue by not remitting appropriately the revenue so collected:
The issue of revenue remittance is a very crucial one, thus if revenues are collected by those assigned to collect them and these revenues are not remitted accordingly then that means there will be no proper accountability, hence the aims of the administration of receiving the said revenue and utilizing it for the benefit of the generality of the people is defeated or has not been achieved. It is therefore important to collect, document and remit the revenue effectively.
If when completed successfully the project will be able to educate both the Muslims and the non-muslims alike on the general overview of the sources of revenue in an Islamic system of administration and probably relating it to other system of administration and their sources of revenue. For it is a well known fact that generally the sources of revenue in an Islamic system of administration are generally ‘Halal’ that is permitted sources such as ZAKKAT, JIZYA, GANIMA, and personal donations. While on the other hand, other systems of administration have their sources of revenues from both the permitted or lawful and the prohibited or unlawful sources.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Just like many other systems of administrations the world over, the Islamic system of administration also encounters lot of problems financially especially in revenue generation, such as; Good leadership, Limited sources of revenue, Inability to utilize properly the revenue so collected by the
leadership, no matter how little or small, Non-challant attitudes and ignorance of those who are suppose to remit the revenue to the administration.
The above problems and many other similar problems with regard to revenue generation and utilization in an Islamic system of administration has lead to the failure of the system and consequently the deformation of the system in Sokoto state.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(1) How have the leadership influence the proper utilization of revenue in an Islamic system of administration?
(2) To what extent does the limited sources of revenue in an Islamic system of administration in hinders its efficient and effective performance?
(3) Is there any relationship between the inability to utilize properly the revenue so collected and inefficient and ineffective performance of an Islamic system of administration?
(4) How factual is that the poor performance in an Islamic system of administration is due to lack of proper utilization of revenue so collected?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the research as a study will be:-
(1) To explore the relationship between revenue generation and good efficient and effective system of administration especially in an Islamic perspective.
(2) To examine the impact of revenue on the smooth running of an administration, putting Islamic system of administration in perspective.
(3) To ascertain the degree of influence revenue have in the smooth, efficient and effective running of an administration, with a purview of Islamic system of administration.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
(1) If no proper ways of generating revenue then there will be no efficient and effective system of administration.
(2) If the revenue so collected is not utilized by the administration judiciously, efficiently and effectively, then services will not be provided as expected.
(3) If the administration is non-challant about revenue generation and proper, efficient and effective utilization,then the administration may encounter many difficulties and then eventually collapse.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
By highlighting on the general sources of revenue under an Islamic system of administration, the study will definitely have significant impact on those who will utilize it in one way or the other as a source of reference in their endeavors.
The study will further help to indicate that by proper revenue generation and utilization under an Islamic system of administration the betterment and general welfare of the citizens is very much assured.
Equally, the study will help highlight on the general aspect of administration under an Islamic system of administration for the general awareness and understanding of both the Muslims and Non-muslims alike. This will definitely assist in making people to understand and make a distinction between the Islamic system of administration and that of other system of administration practice today.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The project write up will be a reasonable degree and as much as possible try to cover such areas as:-
(a) The historical background of the Islamic system of government or administration.
(b) The general functions of Islamic system of administration.
(c) The sources of revenue in an Islamic system of administration.
(d) How a revenue generated under an Islamic system of administration is utilized for the general benefit of citizens.
(e) Problems associated with revenue generation under an Islamic system of administration.
(f) The role individual administrators play in the proper revenue administration under an Islamic system of administration.
(g) A critical look of the Sokoto caliphate and its general sources of revenue.
(h) A general comparison of the Islamic system of administration with other system of administration.
(i) A general comparison of the sources of revenue under an Islamic system of administration with other sources of revenue under other system of administrations.
Furthermore, the project write up will also cover areas such as;
a. The concept of administration.
b. The concept of revenue.
c. Challenges associated with revenue collection or generation.
Finally, the project will also touch on the achievement or success associated with revenue generation under an Islamic system of administration coupled with success or achievements associated with Islamic system of administration.
The reference of all works of other people cited in the project write up will be made as an acknowledgement of the citation, first at the bottom of each page that contain the citation as a sub-script, and then at the end of the whole project as a Bibliography. This is to means that all works of other people in any material form will be acknowledged as a reference point or Bibliography for further studies by those who desire or wish to do so in relation to this project or any other research activity.
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