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This project entitled the role of Local Government in National Development with Kudan Local Government of Kaduna State as a Case Study. The role local government play toward national development cannot be over emphasized, because it mobilized and harness local resources towards sustainable development. Questionnaire and interview are employed in data collection. This researcher work identifies inadequate personnel and finance as the main problems taking Kudun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. This research recommended that more qualified personnel should be employed into the local government service, while those in the service should be encouraged to acquire higher qualification. Favoritism should be discarded in terms of employment, promotion or assigning of duty post. Also Local Government in profitable ventures for increased revenue should be encourage, and more statutory grant from the federation account should be allocated to the local government for more local development project.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In this simplest language, local government means management of the local affairs by the people of a locality. The invaluable role of the local government is anchored on the people. Rural development integrated the people into the plans and powers of government.
In Nigeria, the local government has historically provided services of importance to its citizens both in rural and urban areas. However, the development role of local government in the country is now a subject of public concern as a result of increasing rate of poverty among the rural people. It enjoys an autonomous status, which entitled to take certain legislative, administrative and financial decisions through under the conditions and within the limit of law. Agbakoba and Ogbonna (2004) define local government from the legal perspective. They see it as a political administrative unit that is empowered by low administers a specific locality. The united Nation division of public administrative is also observed that the local government is a political sub limit of a nation or in a federal system, a state which is constituted by law to exercise specific power within a defined area.
Local government can also be defined as governments at the local level established by law to perform specific functions within define of area.
Akpan (1967) says that local government implies the breaking down of a country into small unit or localities concerned play a direct and full part through their elected redirect and full part through their elected representative who exercise power to undertake functions under the general authority of the national government. Local government can best be described as litra sovereign geographical entities within a sovereign nation. It is a legal independent unit that has separate legal existence as a corporate body Campbell (1965). The most essential attribute of local government is its reprehensive and responsible nature. In essence, as the central and state governments are for away at the capital and engaged in matters that do not directly tough on the local people, the local government should help to mobilize the people to support the local council financially, materially or engage himself help project. In a federal state like U.S.A and Nigeria, the local government is constitutionally recognized as the third tier government while in the extension of central government.
The rural sector in Nigeria, and indeed most of those in the developing countries have most often been neglected in terms of the provisions of infrastructural facilities. Therefore, the whole idea behind rural development is for the improvement of the economic and socio cultural life if the masses. These masses are what (Dupe Olebunbosun) referred to as the rural majorities. The basic problems of Nigerians rural people emanated the right for the colonial period. The colonial government actually did nothing to develop rural areas apart from its twin objectives of sourcing raw materials and establishing markets for tits finished products. In Nigeria, as was the case with other colonized countries, the colonialists did not provide capital funds for increased investment requirements as their export demands were met.
As from 1945 when the second world war ended the British Colonial government in Nigeria did not find it necessary to ensure that a sizeable percentage of the budget allocation goes to the rural areas. Even when over 70% of Nigerians lived in rural areas, within that period, the title budgetary allocation to the rural sector was under spent and underutilized. Apart from boasting cash crop production no attempt was made toward improving their living condition. the so called marketing boards that were then set up only ended up cheating and siphoning the cash crop of the rural people through dubious and unjustifiable purchase system. In essence, during the colonial period. There were no social amenities on route meaningful development.
With the attainment of independence in 1960, it was expected that the situation would have changed. However, in the words of Olaunbosun, export remains the main sources of growth. The only difference was that the resources form the rural sector were now being used to develop the urban sector instead of the metropolis, but the rural sector still remain neglected, one major outcome of such neglect led to massive migration to the urban areas by the rural people in search of greener pastures for better living conditions. The third national development plan (1975 – 80) by the rural development such as the national accelerated food production of the Yakubu Gowon regime, the operation feed the national of the Obasanjo regime, the green revolution of the Shagari Era, the directorate of food, roads and rural infrastructure of the Babangida regime, the Abacha family support programme etc.
Despite the above mentioned efforts, rural development is still at infancy state compared to the urban area. Lack of consistency and commitment by succeeding governments federal, state or local level have jettisoned the idea of community of programme towards rural development in Nigeria.
Therefore, this study intends evaluating the role of local government, if given all the necessary resource, material, financial or human by both the federal and state government. In rural development kudun local government is chosen as a case study as a typical rural local government in rural development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Local governments were mainly establish to promote grassroots development. A sustained grassroots development. Since 1976 statutory allocations to the local governments in Nigeria enjoyed (20%) percent as statutory allocation from the federation account which translated into hundreds of millions for the local governments. However instead of the local government to utilize these resources the resorted to embezzling the money and neglected their basic functions. This led to the neglect of national development effort. This research intends to analyze the role of local governments in national development. Kudan local government was chosen as a case study.
Amenities, construction and maintenance of roads, creating of employment opportunities for citizens and pay staff so salaries as and when due, money is undoubtedly required.
Without the availability of revenue, a local government council will not only be incapable of contributing to the economy but will undoubtedly crumble. It is therefore follows that for the local government to discharge its statutory functions effectively. It should not only be adequately fined but such fund should equally be efficiently applied.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROBLEM
The main aims and objectives of the study is to assess the activities of Kudun Local Government Area of Kaduna State in relation to its development efforts toward national development.
i. To examine the role of the Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State improving the standard of living of the rural communities.
ii. To determine the extent to which Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State Implements socio economic programmes designed to alleviate the backward condition of the rural people.
iii. To critically assess the socio economic problem faced by Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
iv. To establish a new body of knowledge which will and other researches to contribute toward national development in various field or discipline to its development efforts towards national development.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
As about 70% of Nigerians live in the rural areas, true national development can only be achieved by improving the living condition of the rural dwellers and ensuring rural development. The study is justifiable in the attention accorded rural development because it is the most effective method of improving living standard of the rural majority the choice of this topic is out of the keen concern of the researchers of the rural development as continued in development programmes of many Nigeria government. In fact, many developing countries are now shifting emphasis form urban to rural development as evident from the number or rural concerned programs being undertaken by various Nigeria governments as already stated and this has been encouraging with the assistance of external donors.
As a Student of Public Administration, one is prompted to undertaken the research topic so as to contribute toward the search for a feasible and workable formula for rural development. And this is of major concern to both policy makers, scholars and students of Public Administration. In line with this analysis and as the emphasis of modern day government is on rural development, the choice of this topic is relevant and useful in the words of H.F Averter, who says, at no time in history has the field of local government been so important to material development than today with increasing availability to the peoples of the world of the fruits modern technology and organization, the place of local government in national progress is being recognized for its own merit and for what it can do to the people additionally the study further hope to point out the lapses, between policy formulation and its implementation with specific reference or focus on Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State as an instrument of Rural Development.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are to be tested:
HO: There is no statistical significance relationship between Local Government Councils in Kudun Local Government Area of Kaduna State and National Development.
HA: There is statistical significance relationship between Local Government Councils in Kudun Local Government Area of Kaduna State and National Development.
HO: The incapacity of local government to provide national development is due to the unavailability of human and material resources.
HO: The extent to which local government can provide national development depends on the availability of human and material resources.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This project entitled the role of local government in national development is narrowed to Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State cover its districts from 2013 – 2019.
The study will lay emphasis on lack of resources such as money, material and time factor led to the limitation of this study to only the area of Kudan Local Government Area of Kaduna State. However, this limited scope alternately allowed for a thorough analysis of the research topic.
The study has covered the time frame of five years. 2013 – 2019 because of the information and data available within the period under this study.
1.7 DEFINATION OF THE TERMS
Some concepts and terms required proper explanation of defination to enhance our understand of the theme where necessary opinions of scholars will be cited to illustrate the terms.
a. DARE (1981) postulate that modern democracy as government which gives to individual maximum freedom and periodical opportunities to choose their leader and programmes. Multiple party systems are a vital characteristics of a democratically government.
The term pragmatism is derived from the Greek which practical action arises. It could simply be referred to as philosophy or practical consequences or result oriented ness. In our context, it is used to described political programmes aimed at better living standard of the masses.
b. Democracy the ancient Greeks defined democracy as government of the people, by the people and for the people. This political arrangement allowed every adult male citizens to participate their modern democracy.
c. National development national development on the other land is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people i.e.e by providing education e.t.c. such services must be delivered to the people especially in the rural area.
d. Local government is a district form of public administration that involves the administration of public affairs in each locality by a body of representation of the local community.
It is a government at a local government level exercised through representative councils established by law to exercise specific powers within defined areas.
More operationally, local government can be defined as;
· Government closer to the people
· Government mostly concerned with those at the grassroots level
· Government that provides economic services to the people at low cost
· Government that facilitate development of grassroots democratic
· A third their of government as in the case of Nigeria.
Accountability owing to the fact that local government provides local services like sanitation, education, transportation e.t.c to the people of the area, it is logical that it is accountable to the local people within its area of jurisdiction.
This principle of accountability is better ensured by making local government or local government bodies elective institutions. If they function below expectation, they may be criticized by the people or voted out during the next elections.
Rural development rural development generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well being of the people. Living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated area. Rural development can also be seen as the overall development people at its domain.
Development implies a progression from a lower and often undesirables state to a high and preferred on Rogers (1969) sees development as a type of social change in which new ideas are introduce in to a social system in order to produce a higher per capital income and levels of living through more modern production method and improved social organization.
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