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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The nature of conflicts in the world has changed dramatically since the end of the
Cold War to the extent that conflicts between or among nation-states have reduced
significantly, while the trend is that conflicts have increased within nation-states due to
intense struggle for power and scarce resources between and among groups, thereby
putting ethnic group against ethnic group and communities against communities.
Consequently, Joshua (2014) observed that more than hundred (100) major conflicts
occurred in the world, leaving more than twenty million (20,000,000) dead, several
millions wounded and millions displaced persons.
In Africa, conflict on sub national level between communities or local militias is a
wide spread problem. In fact, the continent experienced 386 communal conflicts between
the period 1989 and 2014, with an estimate of 131, 563 people that lost their lives within
same period. The countries affected include Nigeria, Somalia, Sudan, Kenya and Uganda,
withNigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo being the most affected, (Torbjornsson,
2016, Elfversson, 2013).
In Nigeria, this situation became more prevalent since the return to democratic
rule in 1999, threatening the survival of Nigerian democracy and unity. Within the first
three years of democratic rule in Nigeria, the country witnessed not less than forty violent
communal conflicts. From the violent protest of the Niger-Delta over the perceived
injustice for resource control and environmental degradation as well as quest for an
equitable federal arrangement, to the Itsekiri-Ijaw violence in the Delta over claims of
land ownership and boundary claims, the Ife-Modakeke communal conflict in Osun state,
the ZangonKataf in Kaduna state, Tiv-Jukun in Taraba State and Eleme- Okrika in Rivers
state. Nigeria has never been confronted with such great security challenge as it presently
experience evidenced by protracted communal clashes and killings and abduction by the
Boko Haram sect.
No region has been spared the vicious scourge of conflict though their prevalence
and intensity have not been the same in occurrences across the length and breadth of the
nation. Thus, fingers are swift in pointing accusingly to colonial legacies and continual
interplay of external and internal imperialist forces that fan the embers of violen
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