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CHAPTER ONEGENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The migration of intellectual worker and skilled personnel from the less developed countries, particularly from the poor countries, to the more develop or advanced countries termed as Brain-Drain is a global phenomenon. However, it hurts more, particularly in the area of science and technology and in the progress of poor and developing countries. It is a very serious matter which such countries must attend to on urgent basis. The term, "Brain Drain" was coined by the British Royal Society to describe the outflow of scientists and technicians to the United State and Canada in the 1950s and early 1960s (Carrington, 1999). By the 1970s brain drain came to be associated with the flow of skilled individuals from the developing world to Western Europe and North America. Brain Drain, also known as capital flight, simply connotes "large-scale emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge" (Idahosa & Akpomera, 2012, p. 17). To Stenman (2006), brain drain can be defined as a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge from one
country to another in order to enjoy better conditions of service and better living environment. It is also defined as the movement of service and better living environment. It is also define as the movement of service and better living environment. It could also mean the of high-level experts from developing countries to industrialized nation (Odhiambo, 2004). In the same vein, kegley (2007) sees brain drain as the exodus of the most educated people from their home country to a more prosperous foreign country.
The highly qualified and trained manpower is regarded as the greatest assest of any nation. The impact that one creative individual can make through his invention, innovations and discoveries can be greater than the labour of thousands of untrained individuals. The loss of human resources especially of skilled and intellectual worker from a state in North Western of Nigeria is referred to as the Brain Drain migration. For example, when someone leaves Nigeria, moves to America for training and education, but then does not return to his or her home country to benefit his country through his knowledge, the country suffers a Brain Drain. The reverse of Brain Drain is the phenomenon termed as the Brain
Gain, which is the return migration after additional knowledge and skills have been acquired abroad and that results in creation of business and trade networks. The North Western Nigeria elites that migrated to industrialized countries were able to play an important role in the educational development processes of their home country through their return and/ or transnational networks. This potential contribution of migrated elite to the educational development process of their home is very relevant.
Over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the educational system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institutions. According to Onuoha (2001:8), this is so perhaps, because of its strategic place both in the nation's hierarchy of priorities and its considered role as a veritable machine for development. In his own contribution, Nwakwo (2000:37) opined that Nigeria educational institution, characterized by military intervention in governance have witnessed untold negative political interference and a seeming calculated moves to submerge it in the river of irrelevances. He further argue that those in authorities sec universities, polytechnic as a
burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolate. Consequent upon this unrest and non-payment development in North Western Nigeria development educational system have become aberrations. The manifestation are in form of cultism, Brain Drain, under funding by government, erosion of academic freedom, general insecurity, dilapidated structures and non-payment of University staff Salaries. These indications that all are not well with the Nigeria north western educational development system. Political interventions in the higher education system under series of military governments imposed distortions and constraints on the system's development. By 1980, Nigeria had established a well- regarded higher education system offering instruction at an international standard in a number of disciplinary areas. The universities of Ibadan and Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, for example, earned global recognition for their researches in tropical health and agriculture respectively. Under successive military governments during the 1980s and 1990s, however, this sparkling reputation steadily tarnished.
However, highly qualified professionals in north western Nigeria choose to leave their own country for another for economic reasons such as, job satisfaction academically progressive environment, better pay and service conditions, a higher standard of living e.t.c. throughout history, countries and centre of academic excellent that offer these attractions have received the largest numbers of professional migrants and these have, in turn made substantial contributions, not only to the economic growth of their host countries, but also to the scientific and technological advancement of humanity. On a global level, the free movement and interaction of high skilled people is a positive thing. But, the cost to the home countries of losing their professionals is incalculable in terms of both development opportunities and loss of investment (Oyowe, 1996)
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The migration of intellectual workers and skilled personnel from the North Western Nigeria to another area is a Brain Drain to the country education development system. North western Nigeria have a number of effective educational development programs designed to put correct measure to reduce Brain-Drain. This however is not without problems
thus: Brain Drain affect educational development in North Western Nigeria, as a result of this, it reduces the already low quantity of skilled manpower available in north western Nigeria and needed for their development. Brain drain result from poor condition of services as well as reduces numbers of dynamic and innovative people, whether entrepreneurs or academics. Brain-Drain has a negatively affects the continent's scientific output which lead to the low effective operation of educational development, unrest and nonpayment development in North Western Nigeria affected by Brain-Drain. Institutions such as tertiary educations, industries, private and public organizations are all affected by brain drain in north western Nigeria.
The problem of brain drain on educational sector from the north western Nigeria to another part of the country is major challenge to the development of the state and the region at large. North western Nigeria has taken measures to address this problem of brain drain in educational sector, which is a key to development of the state and region at large. Brain drain affects educational development in sokoto state and its region in many ways.
Presently, Sokoto state have been listed the most under developed state in Nigeria (the Punch Newspaper January 6, 201.3). This is attributed to the educational system in the state and brain drain is one of the imminent problems affecting the sector in the north western Nigeria which has affected various sector of the state and the region economy and other developmental challenges.
1.3 Research Questions
· Does Brain Drain affect educational development in north western Nigeria?
· To what extent does Brain Drain results from poor condition of services in north western Nigeria?
· To what extent does educational unrest and non-payment development in north Western Nigeria development educational system cause Brain Drain?
· Are institutions in North western Nigeria affected by Brain Drain?
1.4 Objective of the Study
· To examine how Brain Drain affect educational development in
North Western Nigeria
· To examine the extent to which Brain Drain results from poor condition of service in North Western Nigeria.
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