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This study examine the influence of domestic violence on school attendance and academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Four objectives, research questions and hypotheses were raised as guide. Descriptive survey and expo-facto research designs were adopted.The population of the study was 182029. Random technique was used to select 1200 sample. Students‟ class attendance and records of students‟ academic performance were used as instruments for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze bio data and to answer research questions.Null hypotheses one and two were tested with t- test statistics while null hypotheses three and four were tested using regression analysis at a level of tolerance of 0.05. The findings of the study revealed that Students from domestic violence are more regular in school attendance than their counterparts from undomestic violence. Academic performance of students from domestic violence was found to be better than those from undomestic violence.Domestic violence has positive influence on academic performance of secondary school students. The probability value of 0.000 was less than significance level of 0.05.Family instability has negative influence on academic performance of secondary school students. It was concluded that domestic violence affect students‟ class attendance and academic performance. It was also recommended that families should closely monitor their children‟s school attendance. Parents should hence know that stability is a must, unless they do not want their children to be the best in school. Parents should endeavour to maintain stability within them for their overall benefit.Families must inculcate the habit of understanding, tolerance and forgiveness in order to avoid instability, especially when their children become adults. This is because instability has negative effect on the academic achievement of their children.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Domestic violence is a term that covers a range of violent or abusive behaviors perpetrated within the context of the family or intimate relationship which could be physical or verbal. For example, marital abuse is a form of domestic violence perpetrated within the context of an intimate relationship by one’s partner over one, at the detriment of one’s happiness and good health. It has synonyms like wife beating and intimate partner abuse. Although, this is a serious issue plaguing the health status of women, there is paucity of data on domestic violence, principally because it is underreported. As a matter of fact, most popular and academic literature have focused extensively on issues connected with the women's liberation movement; the fight for equality and freedom of speech, and neglected domestic violence, sexual violence perpetrated against women and their health status. In Nigeria, marital abuse has become a scourge and there is a report that 50% of Nigerian women have been battered by their husbands at one time or the other (NaijaGist.com, 2012).
As a matter of fact, domestic violence against women by their male partners is widely accepted by many African societies because of their beliefs that men are superior, the women under them are regarded as their possessions, and can be treated as the men considered appropriate (Kerige, 1995, VAWA, 2011). In Nigeria where - 14 - this study is been carried out, it has been observed that domestic violence against women is not only widespread; it is also socially acceptable as in the case of the whole Africa (Stawarth, 1995). In addition, in Nigeria as in the Filipino culture, the main perceived domain of women is the home, where women are viewed mainly as mothers, wives, care-givers or daughters and this has eaten deep into some cultures in Nigeria (Carths, 1994). And the fact that there is usually no-intervention of, or coming up of most witnesses and victims present when such violence is committed against women, to testify against such incidence, demonstrates a clear social permissibility of domestic violence against women.
A cordial and healthy relationship is expected to exist between a man and a woman, sharing common interest, goals in life, good and bad times and in most cases the general philosophies of life. Such unity or coexistence has been responsible for the wellbeing and social upliftment of mankind. One of the leading institutions that strengthened togetherness is the marriage institution. The institution gives rise to the immediate, smallest but by far the most important community to the child known as a family. The family molds and determines what the child would eventually become in life. The family is the basic unit of life and also the orientation ground for every person in the society. This community that plays a major role in not only the upbringing, but the actual shaping of the life of the individual, needs to be a stable one that has, as far as possible, common understanding of every member‟s feelings, wants and desired objectives in life. It is a general belief that has been tested and ascertained that the family unit has a tremendous influence on the personality of the child. Many factors influence the development of children, but parenthood is the final common pathway to childhood neglect, adjustment and success which to a very large extent influence children school attendance and performance.
Students‟ academic performance refers to students‟ achievement in the topic taught base on the stated objectives. The use of appropriate teaching method by the teacher helps to achieve this goal. Edinyang (2012) defined academic performance as the outcome of education which reveals the extent to which a student, teacher or institution have achieved their educational goals. Academic performance or achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment (Abdulhamid, 2013). For a child to be able to achieve this, he/she must be in the best state of mind; psychologically, mentally, physically, morally, spiritually and emotionally. These are attributes that are systematically built through the process of upbringing by the immediate family. The child‟s academic performance is influenced by interplay of their individual family background, school attended, punctuality in all school activities and the environment they grow. Particularly, the family shapes children‟s behaviours and attitudes towards school through provision of learning opportunities. Studies have shown that the academic performance of students, poor or excellent, is significantly influenced by their family background, among other factors.
Collins and Repilski,( 2006) remarked that family instability in the home influences the learning capabilities of a child either positively or negatively. This is because, both part of the lives of the parents are being emulated by their children, whether negatively or positively. This influences the children‟s readiness to learn even before they go to school. Crosnoe and Elder,(2011) opined that domestic violence affects child‟s social and personal relationships with his/her colleagues, mates and peers within and outside his/her environment. The researcher wanted to investigate whether in addition to child’s social and personal relationships domestic violence also influence child’s school attendance and academic performance in secondary school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A general family atmosphere of peace, harmony and cohesion strongly influences the overall development of the child, just as an atmosphere of anger and discord has a greater impact on children. Cunning, (1993) stated that, the nature of family which a child belongs has a lot of influence on the general life pattern of the child. Therefore, the successful passage through the process of educational attainment is partly dependent on the entire family assistance. Thus ineffectiveness or inadequate family assistance may lead a child to feel overwhelmed, consequently to withdraw from school. Hence, domestic violence can be a strong determinant of student’s academic performance in school, the opposite of which can be disastrous. Supporting this view Stephen (2003), posited that family instability can cause parents to become more inconsistent and ineffective in parenting and may reduce responsiveness to children’s cognitive needs, diminishing the quality of the emotional relationships and attachment between parents and children. This will consequently promote less parental involvement in school work, less or no attention given to early and regular attendance at school and less supervision outside the home. These children are more likely to drop out of school; disengagement from school is associated with low parental involvement and educational aspirations.
Sroufe, (2003), revealed that between 4% and 20% of variation in children poor academic performance and emotional maladjustment is accounted for by the levels and nature of family instability experienced by the children in the family. A very undomestic violence has little or no time for playing parental roles, thus leading to the reductions in the amount of time parents spend monitoring school work, supervising their children and reductions in parent-child communication. This is often accompanied by increase in truancy and more negative attitudes towards school as exhibited by the adolescent
Virtually from all the write ups and experiences so far gathered, it has come to full knowledge that most parents, teachers, and even the society are ignorant of the role domestic violence or otherwise play on school attendance and academic performance of secondary school students. Absconding from schools and poor academic performance among secondary school students are in alarming rate in Zamfara State. It is in the light of these situations that the researcher intended to carry out a study to investigate the influence of domestic violence on school attendance and academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the influence of domestic violence on school attendance and academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara State, Nigeria.
Specific objectives of the study were to;
1. ascertain the difference in the class attendance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those who are not in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
2. determine the difference in the academic performance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those who are not in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
3. Find out the influence of domestic violence on the academic performance of Secondary School students in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
4. examine the influence of family instability on the academic performance of Secondary School students in Zamfara state, Nigeria..
1.4 Research Questions
This study will attempt to provide answers to the following research questions:
1. What is the difference in the class attendance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those who are not in Zamfara state?
2. What is the difference in the academic performance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those who are not in Zamfara state?
3. What is the influence of domestic violence on academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara State?
4. What is the influence of family instability on academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara State?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
Based on the research objectives and questions, the following Null hypotheses were formulated:
1. There is no significant difference in the class attendance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those whose family are not in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of secondary school students who are from domestic violence and those whose family are not in Zamfara state, Nigeria
3. There is no significant influence of domestic violence on academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
4. There is no significant influence of family instability on academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara state,
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of benefit to parents, teachers, students and Home economics. The parents would come to understand the effects stable or undomestic violence has on school attendance and academic performance on their school children so as to try maintain stable homes for the benefits of their children. The parents will have access to this findings during Parents Teachers Association‟s meeting.The findings of this study would enable the teachers to identify students from stable and unstable homes in order provide counselling where necessary proffer solutions to the affected students on how to overcome their academic challenges. The teachers would have access to this work in the school library and during seminars and workshops. Educational planners would also benefit from the study through provision of inputs into planning subjects like civic education, social studies and marriage and family relationship in home economics for the benefit of the stake holders when the result of this research is published in academic journals or presented in workshops and seminar.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
This study is based on the following assumptions. It assumed that,
1. Family size plays a major role in secondary school students‟ attendance and academic performance in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
2. Family educational background plays a major role in secondary school students‟ attendance and academic performance in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
3. Income level of the family significantly influences academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
4. Parenting styles of the family significantly influence academic performance of secondary school students in Zamfara state, Nigeria
5. Students from well to do families are more engrossed school activities than their counterparts from less privilege family.
6. There is significant difference between the academic achievement of secondary school students whose families are stable and those who are not in Zamfara state, Nigeria.
Delimitations of the Study
The study was delimited to domestic violence as they affect the attendance and/or academic performance of students of senior Secondary School in Zamfara state, Nigeria. The study is also delimited to adolescents in senior secondary schools and their families
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