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This study sought to find out the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among Academic Staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State. The study was guided by five research questions and five null hypotheses that were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Correlational Design was used in this study.The Population of the study consist of 6,662 academic staff from six tertiary institutions located in Kaduna State. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 10% of the population of the study constituting 666 respondents. The instruments tagged Teacher Job Stress Questionnaire (TJSQ) developed by the researcherand The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1999)were used for data collection.Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, simple percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions whileHypotheses one and three were tested by Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), null hypotheses two and four were tested using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while Hypothesis Five was tested using t-test. All hypotheses are tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance.Results indicates thatInverse relationship exists between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State (r= -0.79, p = 0.01). This suggests that increase in job stress would lead to decrease in job satisfaction.; Age of the academic staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State has no influence on their level of job stress and job satisfaction (f = 1.16, p = 0.33 and f = 1.48, p = 0.30). This suggests that the academic staff of all age groups manifest stress and job satisfaction at the same level; Gender of the academic staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State has no influence on their level of job stress and job satisfaction (r = 0.604, p = 0.021 and r = 0.567, p = 0.002. this suggests male and female academic staff manifest stress and job satisfaction at the same level; Working experience of the academic staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State had influence on their level of job stress and job satisfaction (f= 8.79, p = 0.00 and f = 5.15, p = 0.03). This suggests that there is significant difference in the level of job stress and job satisfaction of academic staff based on working experience and; Academic staff of Federal owned institutions expresses higher level of job satisfaction than their counterparts in the state owned tertiary institutions (t = 0.54, p = 0.59 andt = 1.99, p = 0.05). This suggests that academic staff of federal owned and state owned Institutions experiences stress at the same level but differ in job satisfaction level. It was recommended that the Management of the Tertiary institutions should expand the existing infrastructural facilities in the school and improve on staff working conditions among others.
1.1 Background to the Study
Workers in all most all organizations face a lot of challenges that make the discharge of their duties almost impossible. This implies that the workers are working under stress. Adeyemo
& Ogunyemi, (2005) observe that Stress is an unavoidable characteristic of life and work. Also Ward, Jones, & Phillips (2003) agree that viewing stress as a life course process assists us in understanding how individual differences in predispositions, susceptibility and perceptions of stress may or may not manifest in disease. Stress has become a factor to be reckoned with in all organizations. It has increasingly attracted the attention of researchers and administrators because of its effect on the psychological wellbeing of the
workers.Academic staff of tertiary institutions like their counter parts in other organizations are not immune from stress, Lecturers in the Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education are currently facing manychallenges that account for their stressful working conditions. The major factor that contributes to the stressful working conditions of the academic staff is the increasing number of students‘ population.
Over the years students‘ enrolment has increased astronomically, this increase in population of students however is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in resources to take care of the demand created as a result of increase in population. Akinade (2007) observes that in some places, it is obvious that more hands are needed, however, because of financial constraints; fresh hands cannot be employed as fast as the situation demands. Unfortunately, affected workers are blamed for non-compliance to the heavy task, which he maintains is another source of stress. The large number of students has led to overpopulated lecture theatres, where such are available. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place under such conditions. By the time the lecturer managed to deliver lectures in such unconducive atmosphere, he/she requires the comfort of an office to sit and reduce the stress encountered in the crowded lecture room but in most schools the offices are not available. In institutions where the offices are available they are very unconducive hence adding to the stress level of the academic staff. Assessment of the students‘ achievement has also contributed to the lecturers stress level because organizing an effective examination is a herculean task due to the sheer large population of the students. Then scoring of the exam scripts and preparation of the students result is another difficult task for the academic staff.
Another factor that contributes to the stressful working condition of the academic staff of tertiary institution is the issue of staff development. Each academic staff is expected to undertake research regularly, undertaking research requires funds. Even though there are many sources of research funds such as the TETFUND, McAurthor foundation and a host of others, accessing the funds can be a frustrating experience. This coupled with the fact that an academic staff‘s promotion is tied to a number of publication, attendance of conference and seminars which must be undertaken together with the teaching and assessment of the students.This is a great source of stress to the academic staff as they could affect the job satisfaction of the academic staff.
Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept, which can mean different things to different people. It is more of an attitude, in internal state; it could be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative. The level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual (i.e. personality, educational level attained, intelligence and abilities, age, marital status and orientation to work); social factors (i.e. relationship with co-workers, group working and norms and opportunity for interaction); cultural factors (i.e. attitudes, beliefs and values); organizational factors (i.e. nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and procedures, employee relations, nature of the work, supervision and styles of leadership, management systems and working conditions); and environmental factors (i.e. economic, social, technical and governmental influences).
Additionally, Obisi (2003) lists factors that contribute to job satisfaction as adequate salary, good working conditions, parental management, job security, opportunity for growth, positive and supportive environment, friendly nature of co-workers and colleagues‘ responsibility and cordial relationship between the superior and the subordinates. Therefore, it can be concluded that job satisfaction is a person‘s evaluation of his or her job and work context. Thus, the larger the gap between what employees have and what they want from their jobs, the less satisfied they are; employees tend to be most satisfied with their jobs when what they have matches what they want. An employee‘s overall job satisfaction is the cumulative result of comparisons that he makes between what his job provides and what he desires in various areas.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teaching at the tertiary education level has traditionally been regarded as a low stress occupation. Although not highly paid, academics have been envied because they enjoyed tenure, light work load, flexibility, benefits such as overseas trips for study and/or conference purposes and the freedom to pursue their own research interests. During the past few years many of these advantages seems to have been eroded in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. Academic salaries have fallen in real terms in relation to current economic crises. Increasing numbers of academic positions are now untenured; workloads have increased; and academics are under increased pressures to attract external funds for their research and to either ‗publish or perish‘. These could expose lecturers to such levels of stress that could force them to deviate from normal functioning.
Academic staff of the Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria are expected to perform at high level in their area of specializations without the basic facilities for teaching, learning and research.
Though the expectation is commendable, it is not always possible for lecturers to competently manage the diverse needs of students with the dearth of resources presently on ground in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions without stress as it could negatively affect their job satisfaction. These issues and others have led the Academic Staff Union of Universities
(ASUU) to embark on six months strike from Wednesday, 3rd July, 2013 to 16th December 2013 demanding the implementation of agreement between ASUU and Federal Government which includes Funding Requirements for Revitalization of the Nigerian Universities,
Progressive increase in Annual Budgetary Allocation to Education to 26% between 2009 and 2020, Amendment of the Pension/Retirement Age of Academics on the Professorial cadre from 65 to 70 years, Setting up of Research Development Council and Provision of Research Equipment to laboratories and classrooms in our universities among others. In the same vein, the Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP) embarked on strike that lasted for ten months from October 4, 2013 to 14th July 2014, while the Colleges of Education Academic
Staff Union, (COEASU) members‘ strike was from December 2013 and suspended on 17th July 2014.
Teacher stress was also focused on this study, because of the researcher‘s personal experience.He has, before taking up appointment as a Graduate Assistant with Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, regarded himself as very hardworking, but the experiences of the last two years in the teaching profession at the tertiary level and observations from the difficulties he observed the senior colleagues going through made him have a rethink. The above raises concern regarding the attitudes of educators towards their work and their levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This study therefore seeks to find out the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among Academic Staff of tertiary institutions in Kaduna State.
1.3 Research Objectives
The following are the objectives for this study, to:
1. determine the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State;
2. find out the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among different age groups of academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State;.
3. determine the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among male and female academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State;.
4. find out the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on working experience; and,
5. determine relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on ownership of Institution.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions served as guide to this study:
1. What is the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State?
2. What is the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among different age groups of academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State?
3. What is the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among male and female academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State?
4. What is the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on working experience?
5. What is the relationship betweenteacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on ownership of Institution?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following are the research hypotheses for testing at P ≤ 0.05:
HO1: There is no significant relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State.
HO2: There is no significant relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among different age groups of academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State..
HO3: There is no significant relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among male and female academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State.
HO4: There is no significant relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on working experience.
HO5: There is no significant relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction among academic staff of Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State based on ownership of institution. 1.6 Basic Assumptions
For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions are made:
1. Teacher stress may influence job satisfaction of academic staff of tertiary institutions.
2. The age of the academic staff of tertiary institutions may have influence on the teacher stress and job satisfaction.
3. The influence of teacher stress on job satisfaction may differ between male and female academic staff of tertiary institutions.
4. The level at which the teacher stress influence job satisfaction of academic staff of tertiary institution may differ depending on their working experience.
5. The influence of teacher stress on job satisfaction may differ between academic staff that work in federal or state owned tertiary institutions.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to all stake holders in the tertiary educational sector such as the academic staff, management of the tertiary institutions, counsellors and would-be-researchers. The academic staff of tertiary institutions will benefit from the findings of this study in the sense that study will find out the level of stress experienced by the academic staff.This will sensitize the academic staff on the need to design means of reducing stress such as organising their work to give room for relaxation, ensuring demarcation between work and home and engaging in activities that would promote positive mental health. Also the need to employ additional staff to complement those currently undertaking the job, provision of resources required by the academic staff that will enhance their performance. All these when implemented would go a long way in reducing the stressful condition under which the academic staff work hence improve their job satisfaction. An educator who achieves success in his/her job and whose needs are met in their work place would be a happy employee that would strive to maintain excellence.
The management of the tertiary institutions would from findings of this study see the need to employ more staff to take care of the increasing population of the students. Related to this also will be the need to provide the resources required by the academic staff for effective teaching and learning such as conducive office accommodation, public address system and access to research grants among others. This would reduce job stress and bring about job satisfaction of the academic staff.
Counsellors would find the findings of this study useful since the implication of teacher job stress and job satisfaction of the academic staff to counselling will be highlighted. This will further enhance the counsellors‘ understanding of the practical applications of the theories of job stress and job satisfaction especially as it relates to the job stress and job satisfaction of the academic staff.
Students would also benefit from the findings of this study because if the academic staff are able to manage their stress the students will get better attention hence will derive maximum benefit from their academic pursuit. All learning activities are designed for the benefit of the students, there will be no lecturers if there are no students, hence any means of improving the performance of the lecturer is directly aimed at enhancing the students‘ performance thereby producing literate citizens that would contribute to nation building.
Findings of this study will add to literature in the area of teacher stress and job satisfaction. Would-be researcher will find the work useful as reference point. Before this study, most of the study concentrates on the universities as such a study that covers the Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education would give more room for literature reviews. The society will be able to understand the stressful conditions under which the academic staff work, as such will be sympathetic with the staff anytime the staff embark on any measure aimed at improving the dilapidating conditions of the tertiary institutions. The practice now is such that the society frowns at the recurring industrial actions by the academic staff under the auspices of the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), theAcademic Staff Union of
Polytechnics (ASUP) and the Colleges of Education Academic Staff Union, (COEASU).
1.8 Scope and Delimitation
Thisstudy covers all the academic staff of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State
University, Kaduna Polytechnic, Nuhu Bamali Polytechnic Zaria, Federal College of Education, Zaria and College of Education, Gidan- Waya. The age, gender, working experience of the academic staff and ownership of the institutions will be considered in the study.
The Non-academic staff of the Institutions will not be involved in this research, higher institutions whose students are not admitted through the UTME such as IAR and CERT of
ABU Zaria, School of Leather Technology Zaria, NARICT Zaria, Ameer Shehu Idris College of Advanced Studies, Zaria, School of Health Technology in Kaduna, Makarfi,
Panbegua and Zonkwa, Schools of Nursing Tudun Wada and Wusasa and the School of Midwifery Kafanchan would not be involved in the study.
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