FREQUENCY AND ACCEPTABILTY OF PARTNER BEHAVIORS, MARITAL ISOLATION AND MEDIATING EFFECT OF LOCUS OF CONTROL ON DRUG USE AMONG MARRIED PERSONS

FREQUENCY AND ACCEPTABILTY OF PARTNER BEHAVIORS, MARITAL ISOLATION AND MEDIATING EFFECT OF LOCUS OF CONTROL ON DRUG USE AMONG MARRIED PERSONS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgements    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Table of Contents       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

List of Tables  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

Statement of the Problem       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

Purpose of the Study  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           12

Significance of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Theoretical Review     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

Empirical Review -     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

Hypotheses     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           28

Operational Definition of Terms         -           -           -           -           -           -           28

CHAPTER THREE:  METHOD

Design -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           30

Setting -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           30

Participants     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32

Instruments     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           33

Procedure        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38

Statistics          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT                    

Summary of Findings -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           39

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Discussion of Findings           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           46

Conclusion and Summary       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           48

Implications/Recommendations of the findings-        -           -           -           -           49

Limitations of the study         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           50

REFERENCES       

APPENDICES                     

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:           Table of Multiple Linear Regression showing the contributory

                        Influence of partner behavior, locus of control, and 

                        marital isolation on drug use among married persons -               39   

Table 2:           Table of Multiple Linear Regression showing the mediatory

                        Influence of locus of control in the relationship between partner

                        behavior and drug use; and between marital isolation and drug

                        use on the other hand  -           -           -           -           -           -                40

Table 3:                       Table of Regression showing the six stages used in testing the

                        second hypothesis       -           -           -           -           -           -               41

LIST OF FIGURE

Diagram showing the mediatory influence of locus of control in the

Relationship between partner behavior and drug use on one hand and

between marital isolation and drug use on the other hand     -           -           -           44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the Frequency and Acceptability of partner behavior, marital isolation and mediating effect of locus of control on drug use among married persons.  The study explored cross-sectional survey design.  One hundred (100) married persons made up of 73 males and 27 females were purposively selected from married persons who were seeking and undergoing treatment and rehabilitation at CRISAcare, No. 10 Okon Essien Close, off Nepa Line, and Mobile Manna Foundation, 6 Idoro Road, Itam, all in Uyo Area of Akwa Ibom State.  The Ages of participants ranged from 25 – 65 years and their mean age was 38.3 years.  Data were collected using a structured questionnaire which comprises of validated measures of frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Scale (FAPBs) by Christensen and Jacobson (1997), Marital Isolation Scale by Erin and Waite (2009), Rotter Internal –External locus of control scale by Rotter (1959), and Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) Scale by Edward, Humeniuk, Ali Poznyak, Montero, World Health Organisation (2000).  Two hypothesis were tested.  The first hypothesis which states that; Partner behavior, marital isolation and locus of control, will independently and jointly predict drug use among married persons was not supported [β = (14.77); t = 1.04 p. > .05], [β = ( -14.49); t = -.95; P > .05].  The joint contribution of predictor variables (PBMI and LOC) revealed no joint prediction of drug use, [F (3,96) = 1.19, P > .05.  The second hypothesis which states that; Locus of Control will mediate the relationship between partner behavior and drug use on one hand, and between marital isolation and drug use on the other hand was supported (= .28, t = 2.07, P < .05).  Conclusively, meditation result revealed that in the first stage, there was a partial mediating effect for locus of control in the relationship between partner behavior and drug use.  However, in the second stage, complete mediation existed for locus of control in the relationship between marital isolation and drug use by married persons. Implications, recommendations, as well as conclusion were made in line with the findings of the study.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

            Marriage is one of the most important life goals in many people lives and heralds a time of settling down and children. Successful relationships require dedication, intimacy, trust and respect from both partners. For people in a marriage or marriage-like relationship, this is even more important. Spouses are the closest and most important person to one another and when this relationship begins to break down it can turn to bitterness, resentment and anger. When drug abuse is involved in a spousal relationship there can be many serious and devastating problems that occur. Feelings of abandonment, anger, violence, lack of intimacy, money problems, co-dependency and sexual issues are just some of the problems. Children and other family members will also be affected by substance abuse and can have a long-lasting impact on future relationships and personal development.

            The process of psychosocial maturation suggests that as individuals progress through early adulthood, more deviant behaviors such as illicit drug use should cease. Drugs use tends to decline towards the end of young adulthood. This decline is true for alcohol and other illicit drug use (Bachman, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Johnston, & Schulenberg, 1997). Chen and Kandel (1995) investigated the patterns of initiation, cessation, and continuation of drug use in a US general population study of individuals in their late 20’s to mid 30’s and found that most illicit drug use ended by age 29. For marijuana, they reported that peak use occurred at about age 19, remained stable for the next four to five years, and then declined. Using data from the Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey, Leatherdale and Colleagues (2007) also found that past year marijuana use peaked in early adulthood. Despite the fact that marijuana used tends to decline by the late 20’s, a significant number of men and women still reported marijuana use into their mid 30’s. About a quarter of men aged 30–31 reported past year marijuana use and 14% of women in the same age group reported past year marijuana use (Bachman, et al., 1997). Similarly, Leonard and Homish (2005) examined marijuana use among newly married couples in their 20’s and 30’s and found that rates of past year marijuana use were very comparable with 26% of men and 20% of women acknowledging use in the past year.

            According to Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation (DARA) in Thailand (2017), physical intimacy is also affected by the use of drugs and alcohol. Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of drugs and alcohol. For males, chronic use of alcohol and drugs may inhibit their ability to develop and maintain an erection, cause impotence and libido problems. Women may find themselves with fertility problems, menstruation issues as well as a reduced desire for sex and problems with orgasms.

            Sexual desire issues are known to be impacted on by drugs, including prescription medications, as well as psychiatric conditions. When this problem occurs between spouses, the consequences can be severe. Without sexual contact or desire, marriages may have serious, irresolvable problems such as chronic disharmony between partners. Psychological issues may also arise out of sexual problems in a marriage that could be incredibly difficult to treat. Spousal relationships often involve a significant level of responsibility for one another and for other aspects of each others lives. This responsibility could include earning money for the family, paying bills, maintaining a house, seeing children to school or minor things like cooking dinner. When a person fails to meet their share of responsibilities, resentment can easily build up and lead to relationship problems. Drugs and alcohol often impact on a person’s perception, memory and ability to perform simple acts. Changes may occur in a person’s concept of personal responsibility when they begin using drugs and alcohol. They may also bring drug-addict behavior into the family home which can upset the delicate balance of a marriage. Hurt, pain and anger are emotional responses that spouses feel when they are let down by the other partner not meeting their side of the obligations of marriage (Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation in Thailand, 2017).

            Addictive substances tend to steal an addicted spouse’s entire focus (perhaps not at first, but eventually, this tends to be the case). This can lead to the spouse neglecting the needs of their family, plus their responsibilities at home and at work. As a result, the addicted spouse may eventually find themselves jobless and even in the throes of financial ruin. For the non-addicted spouse, experiencing neglect is detrimental to their health and wellbeing, the health and wellbeing of their children, and the financial stability of the family. Over time, they find themselves shouldering the burden of the addicted spouse’s responsibilities, plus their own. This can lead to anger, resentment, and contempt, which can be difficult to overcome even after the couple has received professional help to overcome the addiction itself.

            Drug use, also known as substance use, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well (Ksir & Charles, 2002). In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction.

            The processes underlying these developmental declines, or in some cases, maintenance of drug use are not well understood. Labouvie (1996) suggested that declines in substance use are related to a process of psychosocial maturation that was a result of selection and self-correction. He suggested that, over time, individuals develop an increased sense of responsibility about their future, which results in engaging in behaviors that are less risky or excessive. Further, during this maturation process, substance use may be seen as a behavior that will impede progress towards one’s goals or it may be seen as a behavior that is no longer consistent with one’s behavioral norms. To test this process of psychosocial maturation, he assessed substance use in a sample of young adults over a seven-year period (from individuals’ early 20’s through their late 20’s) and found declines in substance use for both men and women as well as lower levels of substance use among these individuals’ peers.

            The acquisition of adult roles such as first full time job, marriage, becoming a parent, etc. can be seen as a series of developmental milestones in this maturation process. Because substance use, particularly illicit substance use, may be incompatible with more conventional adult roles such as marriage or parenthood, the transition into these events should result in the decline of substance use (Bachman, Wadsworth, O'Malley, Johnston et al., 1997) but it is not always so in some cases. In a 20-year longitudinal study of marijuana use and adult roles, not being married at time 4 (early 20’s) was significantly associated with marijuana use at time 5 (late 20’s) (Brook, Richter, Whiteman, & Cohen, 1999). Time 4 employment status and living arrangement, however, were not associated with greater likelihood of marijuana use at time 5. Yamaguchi and Kandel (1985) examined the acquisition of family roles (marriage and parenthood) on the patterns of marijuana use and found that men are more likely to stop using marijuana in the year preceding marriage and after becoming a parent while married. Among women, cessation of mariju


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