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TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vi
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 1
1.3 Research Question 2
1.4 Objectives of the Study 2
1.5 Significance of the Study 3
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study 3
1.7 Literature Review 4-12
1.8 Theoretical Frame Work of the Study 12-13
1.9 Assumption of the study 14
1.10 Research Methodology 14
1.11 Definition of Concepts 15
1.12 Chapterization 15-17
2.1 Background of the Study 18-19
2.2 History 19
2.3 Economy: 20-21
2.4 Function of Sokoto South Local Government 21-24
2.5 The Evolution And Administration Set Up 24-28
3.1 Data analysis: 29-38
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:
4.1 SUMMARY 39-40
4.2 Conclusion 40
4.3 Recommendation 40-41
Local government being the third tier of government in Nigeria is established to ensure development in the rural area. The central purpose of local government is to make findings on governmental presence at the grass roots. There has been series of conferences by leading scholars of local government to find out the extent to which local government has been able to provide basic amenities to the rural populace. The development of rural areas strategies is important in the achievement of any appreciable growth, of the non-industrialized societies, like Nigeria. In view of the above, varying policies, theories, and techniques to tackle rural poverty were adopted in Nigeria by various governments.
However, it has been assumed that a three tier arrangement, federal, state and local will help remove such factors hampering developmental activities at the grass root level, and help transform that marginal segment of rural areas into our national life by providing them with social and economic amenities equally enjoyed by urban dwellers. Furthermore, it will help bring the government closer to the grass roots (Santa, 1986).
1.2 Statement of The Problem
Local government is the lowest level of societal organization and it’s charged with the responsibility of extending governmental operations to the grass root. It also has
responsibility for making the people at the grass root have the sense of belonging to the nation through the developmental activities.
Given the structure, autonomy and financial resource of Sokoto South Local Government.
121. The study is to examine
1. The role Sokoto South Local Government play in integrated rural development.
2. Are the people really feeling the impact of the local government.
3. The extent to which Sokoto South Local Government has ensured development at the peripheral level.
1.3 Research Question
The following research questions became relevant to the study:
1. How can the role of Sokoto South Local government can be analysed?
2. Does relationship between the LG and the communities towards fostering integrated development exits?
3. What are the challenges faced by Sokoto South Local government in rural development?
4. To what extend can development be ensured at the grass root level.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1. The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of Sokoto South Local government in rural development.
2. To appraise the relationship that exists between the local government and the communities towards fostering integrated development.
3. To highlight challenges faced by Sokoto South Local Government.
4. To suggest ways to ensure development at the grass root.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research work is to contribute to discovering and finding out the good intentions of local government to transform rural areas and bring the government nearest to their door steps. It is hope that the findings of this study will enable the government to plan and implement structural changes capable of expanding and modernizing rural infrastructure as well as involving the community in government activities.
It is imperative in view of the above therefore to have an in-depth study of local government in Sokoto state in general and Sokoto South in particular in order to identify areas of government activities. The significance of this study also lies in the fact that it will serve the purpose of contributing to knowledge as well as provide a launch pad for further studies.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study
This work deals with the assessment of Sokoto south local government in the area of rural development between 2011 and 2015. The work is likely to face some limitations. The bulk of such problems may actually lie with data collection; the researcher might face the problem of co-operation of some of the local government staff and rural communities. Time and financial factors which also constituted the greatest to
the researcher crippled his effort in going into some areas within local government necessary for this study. In view of the above, the study is confined to the following towns in Sokoto south local government area. These towns include Sarkin Zamfara A and B Sarkin Adar A and B, Gagi A and B town.
1.7 Literature Review
Several works and research have been conducted on the concept of Local Government and Rural Development in the dispensation and distribution of meaningful development to rural areas. Therefore the concern here is to review some related literatures on Local Government and Rural Development with specific reference to Sokoto South Local Government Area of Sokoto State. The first part would examine literatures on Local Government while the second part will dwell on rural development and problems associated with rural development.
Oviasuyi et al (2010:1) see the term Local Government administration in Nigeria as the closest tier of Government to the people of Nigeria, yet the resident population in it denied the benefit of its existence. The study in this section identified some of the major constraints of Local Government which has inhibited development to the grass-root level. The study endeavour to see Local Government as a strategy in which the dividends of governance can reach the masses particularly amongst the rural dwellers. They substantiated that Local Government since it reformation in 1976 have not been performing to expectation largely because of ineptitude of the staff, poor managerial system, lack of fund and uneven distribution of resources.
It is relevant to note that the motive behind the creation of Sokoto South Local Government is to provide rural area with public goods and services at the grassroot level. It provides certain solution which revolves around intensive commitment from the Federal Government whose exclusive power is superseding. Summarily, it was proved that Local Government in Nigeria has been effective in the dispensation of meaningful development to rural areas. Despite that there still areas where they are found wanting.
Emuinue (1995:12) studied the myth of Local Government in Nigeria with particular references to 1985-1993. It was averred that local government have not being given the need attention and autonomy regarding it control and finances. He posited that 1976 reform was introduced to transform the functional responsible of Local Government to provide the needed development for the rural populace. The study therefore extols that, for local government to be effective and efficient in the distributions of capital project to the rural dwellers it requires absolute autonomy both from the Federal and State Government. The interference of the two tiers of government should be that of curtail to the ward. In addition, he explicitly defined local Government in Nigeria with the ushering of the nascent democratic dispensation as the third tier of government. He posited that there are certain inhibition which debar local government from potential progression. This is consequent on the activities of the dominant party which revolve around the dictum of “he who pays the pier dictates the tones”. This assertion is a synopsis of the contemporary system of local government relationship with the state and federal government in Nigeria. These and many other issus serves as a major contention for local
government development in Nigeria to disburse funs for efficient development. The relevant of this literature would be useful to the study on Sokoto South Local Government of Sokoto State of Nigeria as it shows how local governments are finance in Nigeria.
Omopariola and Adewale (N.D) study substantiated on the effective revenue generation and management in local government particularly in Nigeria. The duo conceptualized local government as an essential instrument of the national and state government for the performance of certain basic services which best be administered locally in the intimate knowledge of the needs conditions and peculiarities of the area feel the existence and at the same to make people in the rural areas feel the benefit of government through efficient administrative control. In addition, the study provides some rationality on the distribution of national budget which is affirms of been adequate for meaningful development needed in the rural areas. However, certain issues remain contention which leads us to this question. Does local government areas in Nigeria work into the expectation of the grass root people? All answered in the foregoing section.
The work of Egromwan (1984) explain extensively on the concept of local government. He substantiated that local government is quite distinct from local government administration, he therefore sum up that local government as a parastatal deals with the government at the lower level in the provision of government benefits to the people at the grass root level. He opined that local governments in Nigeria are not adequately or sufficiently funded due to incessant politico-economic crisis in Nigeria.
Most local government areas are arbitrarily located with strong inclination to favorable government which thus changes it into inappropriate location without benefit at long run. The creation of this kind of local government has thus degenerated into communal conflict in the contemporary Nigeria era which thereby threatens peaceful co-existence of people and the development of capital projects to the people at the grass root level. However, it is against this backdrop that the study would adapt the available avenue in the examination of the local government strategy in the provision of government benefits to rural dwellers.
According to Akpan (1967:50), local government is “ the breaking down of a country or localities for the purpose of administration in which the inhabitants of the different units or localities concerned play a direct and full part through their elected representative to exercise power or undertake functions under the general authority of the national government”. It exists for the people and its chief objective is the development of the community.
That is local government emanates from the decentralized process with the sole aim of ensuring development at the peripheral level. This is also in line with the perception of local government as obtained during the first and second republic as well as the aborted third republic which attempted to give local administration a sound and viable democracy in Nigeria. Ademolekun and Oduntokun (1977:285), have defined local government as the government at local level exercises through representative council
established by law to exercise specific power, within define area. This power should give the council substantial control over local affairs as well as the staff and institutional and financial power to initiate and direct the provision of service and determine and implement projects so as to complement the activities of the state and federal government in their areas and ensure through devolution of function to these council and through the active participation of the people and their institution that local activities and response to local needs and conditions are minimized.
This simply means that the effectiveness and efficiency of the local government depends largely on the active role of the representatives backed up by law with in defined areas and explicitly enshrined in the constitution of a given country.
The international encyclopedia of social science (1968:451) defines local government loosely as public organization authority to decide and administer a limited range of public policies within a subdivision of a regional or national government. It is at the bottom of the pyramid of governmental institutions with the national government at the top and intermediate government (State, regions and provinces) at the middle range. Normally, local government has general jurisdiction and is not confined to the performance or one specification and service. In the past, local government has been classified in terms of their formal structure that is whether or not they have broad executive power.
Rural development is as old as human society. Rural relation with local government is of antiquities and hence no community is self-sufficient, but there are degrees of interaction among the people. Despite its age, it has undergone certain transformation in the country. Rural development is generally accepted to be a holistic concept which recognizes the complexity and their inter relatedness of various variable which influences the quality of the life of people in the rural areas.
A definition accepted by the working committee on the human environment in Kenya revealed rural development that is a series of quantitative and qualitative change occurring amongst a given rural population and whose converging effects indicate in time arises the standard of living and favorable changes in the way of life.
According to Shuuaib (2007:5) rural development is most often used to encompass every effort towards the advancement of community and national interest. He further substantiate that rural development is an important trend in recent time, it mean different thing to different people depending on their politics and philosophical view of the world. Whatever, the explanation of rural development must have taken, it must be seen as a strategy for improving the economic, political, education and social status of the rural communities.
According to Bola and Belo (N.D), rural development “is a process of social action in which people of the rural community organizes their needs plan sources,
supplement organization with assistance in any form of government and non-government organization..
The Ashridge (2004) in a conference on social development viewed rural development as “a movement designed to promote better living for most community” this is aimed at advancing the well-being of the rural dwellers.
Onimide (1971:115) viewed “rural development and agricultural development as a synonymous terms, although the agriculture production based is of course a vital component of any rural development programme. In many Africa countries attention has been paid to agricultural development, but until recently, there have been few attempts to dashpot comprehensive rural development strategy.
Rural development can also be defined as improving the living standard of the masses of the low income population living in the rural areas and making the process of the development self-sustaining. The motion for rural development is theretofore very wide in deed. It include generation of new employment, more equitable access to land, equitable distribution of income, whole spread improvement in health, nutrition, housing, creation of incentives and opportunities for saving credit, creating wider opportunities for individuals to realize their full potential through education and sharing in the decision in which affect their lives. These and many other things are not been equitably distributed, therefore, the study would adapt the patterns in the interpretations of problems associated with Oyun Local Government in Kwara State..
The world Bank (1975) defined rural development as a potent designed strategically for general upliftment of economic, socio-political lives of specific group of people among who seek for livelihood, these groups of people are land lord tenants small scale former to a mention a few.
Owalla (1971) rural development is a strategic means of restructuring of the economy in order to satisfy the material needs and aspirations of the rural masses and to promote individual collective incentive to participate in the rural of development. They involves a host of multi-sectoral activities including the improvement of agriculture, the promotion of rural industries, the creation of register infrastructures and social over head, as well as the establishment of appropriate decent realized structure in order to allow mass participation. The India planning commission considered rural commission development as a method or rural extract which seeks to initiate the process of transforming the social and economic policies of the community. In the Nigeria context, the Federal government sees it as a programme which aids the community themselves, while government is expected to offer technical guidance and financial assistance. It is the belief of that programme that can bring about self-reliance in individual and quality expected in the rural villages or communities. Rural development encourages collectives action through people institutional development e.g cooperative society, development association and others just to mention a few.
However, local government is noted for the following functions; 1. Construction of roads and parts;
2. Provision of health services and sanitation;
3. Provision of social services like markets libraries and public transport;
4. Maintenance of forests and collection of rate and taxes;
5. Enacting regulation for planning etc.
1.8 Theoretical Frame Work of the Study
The study will employ “system analysis” as the theoretical framework. This is due to the imperative nature of the system analysis as it places much premium on the integral parts that constitute an organic whole. Nonetheless, one would like to know the central theme of the political system.
According to David Easton, political system is “that system of interaction in any society through which building or authoritative allocations are made” “authoritative allocations may be roughly translated as policy making”. There are in this political system inputs from the various environments and these are converted into output that is authoritative decision feedback mechanism puts back into the system as output, thus completing a complex cyclical operation. Many demand will be made or “articulated”, but some are might be lost in conversion process and do not reach the output stage if there are too many demand or particular types of demand, stress arises, and the channel are then over loaded. Again, there are various regulatory mechanism, to control demands and minimize overloading.
The structure mechanism (gate keepers) for example, pressures groups or political parties become the first category, secondly category is cultural mechanism with various
norms which consider the appropriateness of the demand. Thirdly, communication channels, which can be increased, fourthly, demand may be controlled in the conversion process itself by the legislators, executive and administrative bodies. Authoritative decision that displease too many members of the system will loss support for the system or a group of officers tend to rule with iron hand or try to abuse power. This model which tries to provide frame work for organizing and conceptualizing information has the following characteristics among others;
A system has basic elements, parts and structure and each of these has an optimum role. It means they are equally important to the proper function of the system. All the components have goals and objectives, which tend towards the survival of the system, waste is always disallowed in every system, all the elements or integral parts are developed by differentiation. They all develop at their own pace using their available resources; on the whole, a system is an integral whole so that a deliberate injury to one part result in an equal injury to all parts indeed, the effective performance of the system depends immensely on the co-ordination of its part. Easton, Model serve as the “frame work” of this study while Easton studies the political system broadly in his time, the relevance of the model will serve as bedrock for this study.
In conclusion, what the theory sought to explain is that, for development to take place in any society, all the stakeholders, must be involved in the developmental process, like the government, the local community themselves and the availability of resources.
1.9 Assumption of the study
This research work is based on the following assumptions are formulated.
1. The role of Sokoto South local government is determined by the quantum of resources available and the judicious use of the same.
2. That Sokoto South local government has achieved a lot in the aspect of Socio-economic development in the various areas.
3. That Sokoto south local government has achieved less in rural development service
4. That rural development serves as avenues through which the needs of the rural people are satisfied.
1.10 Research Methodology
The method employed for this study comprise of the primary and secondary sources of data collection. In the primary source of data collection. The use of questionnaire will be adopted while in the secondary source of data, the use of magazine, newspaper, journal, articles and text books and other material found relevant to the study. The population of the study comprises of randomly selected fifty (50) people from the chosen towns in the local government areas, based on the researchers, discretion of using judgmental sampling in choosing the people that would be accessible as well as possessing characteristic. That is relevant to the research.
1.11 Definition of Concepts
The concept of rural development does not have a dingle universal definition. There are those who give the concepts a management model connotation and yet others give a mobilization model connotation.
According to Krejamoh (1985:250) rural development is a” process of not only increasing the level of per-capital income in the rural areas, but also the standard of live of the rural population”.
The definition of rural development seems to be too narrow. It is based on developmental economics that narrow the interpretation of rural development in terms of gross national domestic products. In the first place, per capital income is too narrow a yardstick for measuring rural development whether on the micro or macro level of analysis
According to Adegboye(1992:22) rural development is the development of the rural people in such continuous manner as to enable them most effectively utilize their intellectual technological and other resources for further development of both themselves and other resources”.
In another contribution, professor Umalel (1975:20) in her book published for the World bank defined rural development as improving living standard of the mass of the low income population residing in rural area and making the process of their development self sustaining.
The definition as given by Umalele is very important because it reveals three important features on how rural progress is planed and implemented;
Firstly, improving the living standard of the subsistence population, involves mobilization and allocation of resources so as to strike a balance between welfare and the level of productivity.
Secondly, self-sustenance with will involve the subsistence population in the development programme.
Thirdly, mass participation side by side with allocation of available resources to low income regions making sure at the time that production and social services reach the rural populace.
According to Hanson(1977:40) Socio-economic is the branch of applied economics, which deals with problems such as Population, Unemployment, Poverty, Housing And National Insurance collier encyclopedia(vol:8) defines social development as the process by which a non-industrial country is usually characterized by the dominance of agriculture and low per-capital incomes developments dynamics and efficient industrial and service sectors and integrates them into a balance national economic that provides, a much higher material standard of living for the people as a whole. But for this to be achieved, a construction of supporting network of roads, railway and communication equipments to bind the different regions and sectors into a nation whole would be required. This has brought in economic activities, in a sense, this
definition seems to be agreeing with the view that social and economic development have
interchangeable role because solution found for one might equally enhance the other.
Local government according to Appadorai(1965:287) local government is
government is the government in which popularly elected persons are charged with
administering and executing duties in matters concerning the inhabitants of a particular
district or place.
The United Nation Organization (UNO, 1961:11) define local government as a
political sub division of a nation ( or in a federal system or states) which is constituted by
law and has substantial control of local affairs including the power to impose tax or to
This research work is divided into four chapters;
Chapter one is the general introduction whereby the background to the study, the statement of research problem, research questions, aims and objectives, significance of the study, assumption, literature review, theoretical frame work, assumption of the study, research methodology, scope and limitation of the study, definition of concept and Chapterization.
Chapter two deals with the Historical background of Nigeria, chapter three is
largely concerned with data collection and analysis i.e information gathering from
Lastly chapter four deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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