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The central focus of this study is on the causes and effects of insecurity on the socio- economic activities in Plateau State specifically in Jos North and BarkinLadi Local Government Areas. Cognizance was given to security and insecurity problems. The studyduginto the socio economic causes and indicators of insecurity in Jos North and BarkinLadi Local Government Areas which includes unemployment, poverty, ethno-religious conflicts, farmers and herdsmen feud etc. as well as their impacts and the mechanisms adopted by the State and Non-Governmental Bodies in their quest to reduce and resolve the sways caused by insecurity. The theory of Securitization was reviewed and adopted. This is because it borders on the issues of insecurity and security. This owns to the substantial effects of insecurity in Jos North and BarkinLadi Local Government Areas. The theory of securitization is of the opinion that insecurity matters do not center only on conflicts, crisis or insurgency, rather they entail economic and social perspectives like poverty, unemployment, illiteracy etc.The research relied on primary type of data. Primary data was generated through questionnaires and thorough interview. Secondary data was sourced through reports, journals, and articles by eminent scholars on the subject matter. The study discovered that the problem of insecurity has deep implication for the growth and development of the people of Jos North and BarkinLadi, particularly in the areas of education, unemployment, agriculture production, hospitality business, transportation businesses, governance, ethnic and religious intolerance etc. it also found out that the causes of insecurity are enormous and the resolution mechanism have not been effective due to the inability of Government to follow through with their promises to reduce the effects of insecurity. The study recommendsmassive employment to reduce youths from engaging in various crimes like thuggery, kidnapping etc. Government shouldencourage dispute resolution initiatives to reduce lack of trust and belief in one another, and to renovate the central market (terminus). This is because terminus central market served as a point of social interaction, business activities etc.



1.1    Background to the Study

Universally, the fundamental responsibility of a state is to protect the lives and properties of its

citizens. According to Omoyibo and Akpomera (2013), security is a concept that is prior to the state and the state exists in order to provide security. Security therefore, is the prime responsibility of the state (Hobbes, 1996). This is because security is a highly valued goal, which may be difficult to reach because of different threats and risks in personal lives and in near and global environments. The word insecurity is a broad concept. It entails terrorism; conflicts both religious and ethnic; general political violence; youth political thuggery; farmers and herdsmen feud; armed robbery, kidnapping etc. The impact of these on both psychic and overall functioning of Nigeria cannot be overestimated (Eme, 2011).

Insecurity takes various forms. According to Eme (2009), It is the breach of peace, and security

whether historical, religious, Ethno-regional, civil, social, economic and political, that has contributed to the recurring conflicts which Nigeria has witnessed over the years resulting in wanton destruction and loss of lives and property. The desire for security is fundamental to human survival. However, insecurity is not unique to Nigeria alone. Insecurity has geographically spread across the globe. The United States, United Kingdom and many countries face the challenges of insecurity within their borders on a daily basis (Adejumo, 2011). The differences between these nations and Nigeria according Adejumo, is how they manage the threats and impact.

Socioeconomically, Nigeria has been confronted with numerous conflicts (farmers and Fulani herdsmen feud, ethno-religious conflicts, indigene settler conflicts etc.) that have inflicted monumental damage on the economy, politics and peaceful coexistence amongst groups (Sha, 2005). Notwithstanding the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria which specifically states that the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government. Government has failed in its constitutional responsibility to provide a secured and safe environment for lives, property and the conduct of business and other economic activities. In contemporary times, the alarming impact has been felt leaving unpalable


consequences in the nation‟s economy, social vices and political structure. Despite the huge budget allocation to insecurity problems, insecurity in the country is at its peak and a confirmation of this is the low ranking of Nigeria in the global peace index (GPI, 2012)

The failure of economic growth in most developing and developed countries of Latin America and Africa, in the late 1970s, to deliver corresponding social goods and solve problems of unemployment, poverty, disease, hunger, illiteracy and ever-increasing crimes and wars, necessitated the emergence of insecurity in Plateau State (Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013).

Plateau State is a homeland of several ethnic groups in Nigeria and by reason of its geographical and friendly weather occupies a strategic position in the middle belt of the country. Yet, it remains one of the least developed states in Nigeria notwithstanding the long term contacts with foreigners living in the city for as far back as 1940‟s.During the colonial and early post-colonial periods, Jos was dominated by migrants while the indigenes made up less than 2% of the city population. “The migrants also dominated 86% economic life in the city because Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa were traditionally strong in trade and other commercial activities” (Krause, 2011). This is simply because most of the indigenous people were into farming, as supported by Mangvwat (2013), who points out that land farming, was the basic occupation of the Plateau people. As a result, their calendar was based on agricultural activities like farm clearing, burning, cultivation, tilling, sowing, weeding, harvesting, threshing, and storing. They supplemented their income with other activities like hunting, fishing, crafts (Mangvwat, 2013), blacksmithing, pottery, and civil service.

This is also why Plateau people were easily able to continue their business lives as traders in

other goods when tin mining declined in the 1960s. The Hausas had served as middlemen, but with the decline of tin mining activities some of them lost their jobs. Therefore, it was easy for them to go into the informal economy because of their long history of doing business. Sha (2005),argues that the migrant population engaged in all sorts of small scale production and commercial ventures as means of meeting livelihood challenges. Many of them became dry season farmers, petty traders, taxi and bus drivers and owners, artisans, sales commission agents, retailers, and pool agents (Sha, 2005).

Markets were also created in various parts of the city, which helped in the expansion of the city. Examples of these created markets are the Meat market, the Central market at the terminus area,


Laranto market, Bukuru market, the Building Materials market, Gada Biyu market, Katako market, Yan Shanu market, Tudun Wada market, and Hwolshe market, all located in Jos North and Jos South local governments (Sha, 2005).

The geographical location and economic history of Plateau State converged in its becoming one of the most religiously plural cities in Nigeria and a particularly significant meeting point for Christianity and Islam, and yet, until the 1990s, its diverse communities lived together in peace (Best & Rakodi, 2011). Today, Diversity has taken its negative toll on the state, however, leading to conflicts as discussed in the study.

1.2    Statement of the Research Problem

This research examines the effects of insecurity on the daily lives, living standards, political

behaviour and economic activities of the people o

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