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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The early colonial administration in Nigeria and indeed English Speaking West African States used traditional authorities in large scale in their system of indirect rule. Ever since then, the relevance of traditional authorities in governance especially in Nigeria has always manifested in divers forms and degrees. This was in realization of the relevance of traditional authorities in the governance of primitive communities and kingdoms as well as the desire by the colonial authorities not to disrupt an already existing system and to reduce the volume of manpower requirement for indirect rule.
Before then, traditional authorities essentially provided leadership for the various communities and kingdoms. However, the system of traditional government varied from place to place. In Igbo land for example the system of government was quite unique and transcends the democracy of America and Europe. Virtually every group was involved in the day to day affairs of each community, Isichei (1976:38) quite acknowledged this that one thing that struck the first colonial visitors to Igbo-land was the extent to which democracy was truly practiced. Characteristically, different political institutions with varying combinations abound in Igbo-land. This system of government has been referred to severally by several authors as aristocracy; although Isichei believed that it is quite at variance with the popular aristocracy as was practiced in most other parts of the world.
Whatever is the case, the political system in the Northern and western part of the appear completely different from that of Igbo-land. In the west for example Obas were sole authorities and these have absolute power and authority over their territories.
While in the North following the Jihad, Emirates were delineated and placed under the rulership of Emirs who are only account table to the Northern Nigeria caliphate (the Sultan of Sokoto). The system of traditional government in the Northern Nigeria provided a veritable ground and an impetus for the introduction of indirect rule by the British Colonial government. The success registered in the North was to encourage the colonial administration to extend such system in Southern Nigeria. This was in the bid to universalize indirect rule in Nigeria in line with the British Government’s policy of indirect rule.
This was not quite welcomed and successful in Igbo-land. This is principally because of the fact that it was not in line with the prevailing political system and structure. In Igbo-land for example, although there were constituted authorities that provided governance to the various communities, yet power and governance was essentially a collective responsibility, except in few communities such as Aboh and Onitsha which had traditions originating from some where else. There were hardly communities that were ruled by kings (Ezes). This gave rise to the popular ibo adage “Igbo enwe Eze” (the King in every man).
However, even in such isolated communities that have Ezes (Kings) the powers of such Ezes were not absolute although they may appear sacred and often lived in ritual seclusion. Agwuna (1978:15 – 16) for example expressed that in Igbo-land Kings were not absolute and therefore do not posses absolute powers, rather they took decisions in conjunction with “Ndichie” (red cap Chiefs) and representative of other relevant groups.
Also, the colonial government in order to harmonise indirect rule selected and installed warrant Chiefs many of whom were of questionable character and doubtful background. This resulted in wide range unacceptability of warrant Chiefs.
The attainment of independence in 1960 and the introduction of constitutional government saw a gradual decline in the political powers and influences of traditional authorities across the country. Overtime, traditional authorities became, gradually irrelevant in the political scheme of things. The period following the emergence of the government of Murtala Mohammed (around 1976) witnessed a boost in the political influence and powers of traditional authorities. In 1976, for example, the Federal Government articulated a national policy which aimed to restore the influence and respects of traditional authorities. This was to incorporate them in both rural administration and development, as well as restore and sustain the country’s rich cultural heritage.
The need for this study emerged in response to these development. This is as a result of the renewed desire for an effective medium and instrument for mass mobilization at the grass root level for rural and national development. This study specially seek the role of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria with particular reference to Anambra North Senatorial zone of Anambra State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of this study emerged in response to the desire to identify veritable medium and instrument for rural administration and grass root mobilization for economic development, social justice and social order. It must be realized that the establishment of the three tiers of government is in pursuance of this desire. Yet much more is still desirable. The appraisal of traditional authorities and their roles in governance in Nigeria became very necessary and appropriate as part of the efforts in searching for a viable alternative.
Evidence are mounting to show that there three tiers of government have been failing in reaching out to same rural communities for effective mobilization for economic and social order. Thus clashes and inter community fends appear to be on the increase. The cases of Warri clash, Tiv-Jukun clash, and the Aguleri-Umuleri clash just to mention a few are still fresh. In most of the cases traditional authorities were used by the government in settling such fends. Thus pointing to a veritable role which traditional authorities can be used to perform.
It is argued however that traditional authorities are often closer to the people since they are constituted from amount the people, the tendency for the people to respect and listen to them is higher.
Also, since they are part of the communities they are completely in tune with their needs, aspirations and culture and traditions, yet evidence exists to show that constitutional government appear to show less interest in delegating authorities. This appear to make them redundant and irrelevant in the political scheme of things. The result is that their wisdom and resourcefulness which could have been taped for mere effective governance and economic development at the rural level are allowed to waste.
Worst still, the generality of Nigerian societies are fast losing their culture which is enshrined in their way of life. Their value systems, aspirations, attitudes, norms etc are fast fading. This is as a result of over acculturation which manifested in their preference for foreign goods and ways of life. This made the search for an instrument for cultural sustenance especially through government imperative.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The fundamental objective of this study was to specifically identify and appraise the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria. To achieve this attempt was made to
(a) Identify the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria.
(b) Identify the place of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria.
(c) Assess the performance of traditional authorities in governance mobilization for economic and social order.
(d) Identify the roles of traditional authorities in settling inter and intra community fends.
(e) Determine the extent of Chieftaincy fends and tussles in Igbo land.
1.4 THEORITICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
For several centuries traditional authorities existed in form of Chieftaincy institution in many parts of Igbo land. The term, Chief, is taken in most case to refer to “Ndi-Iche” or “Ndi-Ochie” (old people). They are generally associated with the ancestors. The underlying meaning of Chieftaincy can be derived from the names given to titled men. In many parts of Igbo land it is based on a complex partially separable symbolic component which collectively relate to a variety of different structures of different traditions. According to Nzimiro (1972:83) the three major terms referring to the kings or Chiefs are “Eze” concerned fundamentally with his relationship to the sacred “Nze” complex, “Obi” which alludes to his providing a secure forum for public meetings and court proceedings and “Igwe” (the sky) that signifies his weight in the society. The various roles aspects of traditional authorities identified are suggested by these and other titles.
Fundamentally, the status of every Chief in Igbo land is grounded in a given residential area either in a village or community. Within that residential area, a Chief welds a commendable degree of social and political influence. They are the policy makers and take serious decisions on issues concerning wars, divorce, crimes such as murder and robbery, inter community relations, marriage negotiations etc. They are according to Anderson (1972:25 - 26) known for purity and truth fullness.
During meetings and discussions, the Chiefs speak first. In most cases they are the symbols of their village jurisdictional boundaries. Their movements outside these boundaries must therefore be ceremonial and well escorted actions. Thus Anderson (1972: 28) observed that they symbolize the boundaries of the societal communities as they rarely step beyond them. It is their responsibility therefore to ensure the security of domain lives and properties within their domain.
Always and everywhere Chiefs were referred to as “our father” (Nna anyi) and their identity is closely bound up with a sort of patrillineage and clan symbol. In some parts of Igbo land early Chiefs were also Chief Priest. This explained why in most cases, especially in the traditional setting, Chiefs appear to have very close relationship with powerful spirits which they tend to be identified with. In ramification of the above, it became self evident that the functions of Chiefs as traditional authorities in the traditional societies are vast. Nzimiro (1972 : 65 – 68) summarized the functions of traditional authorities in typical traditional societies to include: Political (policy making and political decision) judicial (the administration of justice executive (the enforcement of law and order) and military (the protection of territorial intergrity).
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research question guided this study.
a) What are the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria?
b) What is the place of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria?
c) What is the level of performance of traditional authorities in grassroots mobilization for economic and social order?
d) What are the roles of traditional authorities in settling inter and intra community fends?
e) To what extents are Chieftaincy fends and tussles in Igbo land?
f) What is the extent of government interference in the activities and functions of traditional authorities?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study lie to a great extent in sensitizing the government to embark on a more Urgent and more sincere appraisal of traditional authorities especially in respect of their roles in governance. This is with a view to identifying their relevance and usefulness so as to provide a rationale for their incorporation in the political scheme of things in Nigeria.
This study therefore aimed essentially to set a stage for a more urgent and more comprehensive appraisal of traditional authorities in governance especially within the Nigeria contest by desirable and relevant research persons and agencies. This will help in placing traditional authorities in the right perspective.
It is therefore hoped that this study will be of immense value to the government, research follows and agencies as well as Students of Business Administration and management especially those of Institutes of Management and Technology Enugu.
This is because it will not only provide them with adequate insight but will also provide an enabling rationale for further studies.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study specifically focused on the roles of traditional authorities in governance in Nigeria. However, due to the limited time and resources available for this study, it was absolutely difficult to undertake a study that will comprehensively cover the whole country or even a full state. For this reason, this study was limited to Anambra North Senatorial zone of Anambra state.
1.8 LINITATION OF THE STUDY
There were a number of variables and factors that combined to limit a smoother and quicker completion of this study. While some of these factors may be considered minor, others may be considered major. Some of such factors are limited time frame as well as limited resources available for this study. It is believed that this study would have been better if more time and resources were at the disposal of the researcher.
However, one major factor that presented the main source of worry to the researcher was the attitude of the respondents which was not quite encouraging. While some of them bluntly refused to complete the questionnaire others simply put away the questionnaires for longer than necessary. There were quite a few respondents that misplaced their questionnaire which resulted in the read ministration of questionnaire at extra cost.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
The following terms were defined as they were used in this study.
These are constituted authorities in the traditional setting that provide leadership in the traditional societies.
This refers to the act of or system of political leadership.
Agwuna .O. (1978) Ofala Festival in Igbo Land Enugu ABC Books
Anderson, R.N (1972) The King in Every Man, New Haven and London,
Yale University Press.
Isichei, E (1976) A History of the Igbo People New York, St, Martins
Nzimiro, I. (1972) Studies in Ibo Political System: Chieftaincy and Politics
In four Niger States, London, Frank Class.
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