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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Any attempt made at holistically separating the twin concept of policy and programme may not yield the desired result as both are more or less intertwined on this note we shall attempt conceptualizing both terms in the context of this study.
Be taken by government or private organisation1 the Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary of current English define policy as a plane of action, statement of aim and ideas, especially made by government, political party or business company2 we could want to sum up that policy become a means or guide to carrying out an action.
A programme is a set of a decision, strategy, structure design to implement a particular policy’s programme is the actual procedure, structure in terms of persona, funds, activities, etc through which a policy is implemented or carries out. A program originated from a policy3.
We shall therefore find succor in the thought of Jacob and Flank who in the recognition of this twin concept define policy as an integrated programme of actions which actor (or group of actors) is accustomed to or intends to undertake in response to given problem situation to which he is comfronted4.
In the course of this study the concept of policy and programmes shall often be used units appropriate place. Evaluation simple put is assessment of appraisal programme evaluation is any scope that can therefore be seen as modalities or processes at assessing the cost of programme, the activities present operations, the implication, impact performance, the accomplishment, or out comes, efficiency and effectiveness.
Some example of major policies and programme as put in place to caution the effect of poverty in Nigeria in the post include the 1972 Gen. Yakubu Gowon’s National Accelerated food production programme and the Nigerian agricultural and co-operation bank, entirely devoted to finding agriculture Gen, Olusegun Obasanjo, operation feed the nation of 1976. The 1976 Shehu Shagari’s green evolutional programme. The 1986 Gen Babagida’s directorate of food, road and rural infrastructures (DFRRI). The family support programmes and the family economic advancement programme of Gen Abacha in 1993 and presently the Obasanjo poverty alleviation programme which at present is wearing a new look of national poverty. Eradication programme.
The above cited examples have to be nurtured by different administration and regimes in Nigeria at one time or the other. Immediately after the civil war, the nation spent and there was the exigency of resuscitative programme to help put the nation as it were back on stand. The Gen. Yakubu Gowon administration at the first time find scour in the national acceleration food production programme (NAFPP) and the Nigeria agricultural and co-operative bank. The programmes was geared at accelerating and finding of agriculture. The NAFFPP later turn out to be a colossal waste and nothing was achieved.
From the much publicized operation feed the nation as packaged by the then military strong man. Gen Olusegun Obasanjo in 1976 to the present fourth republic President Olusegun Obasanjo poverty alleviation programme tined. National poverty eradication programmes, much is still left to be desired as to be the extent these various programmes have able to expunge or reduce poverty in Nigeria.
The fallout of the above programme have been more of rural underdevelopment characterized by land hunger, unemployment, social inequalities (in terms of wealth, power, and prestige) declining agricultureal productivity, poor income, poor health, poor housing and poor education.
It is most unfortunate that despite the various programme put in place at combating poverty, the muster called poverty have become so pervasive due to the lip service, unco-ordination and glorification of poverty alleviation on the pages of newspapers and news conference with failure trailing then due to watering or near non existent proper evaluation of these programmes.
Therefore, it is also responsible that before funds loans are dishes out to the public especially as it concerns to N10 billion earmarked to be disabused by the poverty alleviation programme (P.A.P), the government should do well to take stock of the paste attempt at alleviating poverty in this country. The point is that when a programme has been failing each time it is attempted, the ideal thing to do would be to study the past attempts to sees where the mistakes lie. Herein underpin the context of this research work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Owing to out scope the role of programme evaluation cannot be overemphasized. It is however pertinent to recognize the fact that poverty alleviation in Nigeria over years have lived proper evaluation and the pitfalls suffered by subsequent programmes have therefore lingered.
We shall identify some of the problems vis-à-vis, the subject matter.
1. The process of alleviating poverty in Nigeria has been a drain on government resources
2. The rigors associated with the Nigeria bureaucracy has further made glaring the crisis on programme evaluation
3. The mismanagement of funds often involved has only succeeded in impoverishing more the masses whose neither to poverty was to be alleviated.
4. The government is seen to have lost focus on the best method of alleviating poverty
5. The iron of getting surged into poverty instead of alleviating as most Nigerian can hardly feed on a dollar per day.
6. The poor masses as leader alike have gradually thrown moral rectitude to the world for survival.
The above named problem which have gradually led to Nigeria loosing out on the basic needs of life finds it root in corrupt practices and insecurity of programme formulators as policy makers to religiously guide programmes of this magnitude of it’s place of pride.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The subject of the research sets out to explore the following goals
1. To identify the fact that Nigerian are poor
2. To give vent to program evaluations as the only panacea to organizational growth
3. To identify the level of poverty
4. To enumerate efforts put in place over the years of tackling the scourge of poverty
5. To critically look at the level of purpose fullness and determination of Nigerian bettering or prospering the organic unit.
6. To bring to fore the lapses of set backs that are likely to erupt as a result of the above measures
7. To recommend appropriate measure at making futures programme work.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. The dearth of proper evaluation has been the bane of organizational growth in Nigeria
2. The public sector grossly lack the modalities and where withal at proper evaluations of its programme
3. The poverty alleviation programmes like all others previous policy brought to fore the ineptitude at effective and efficient actualization of people oriented policies and programmes.
4. The poverty alleviation programmes (P.A.P) only succeeded enriching some few politicians to the detriment of the masses.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study become significant due to the urge to as a matter of urgency arrest the scourge of poverty which include proffering modalities at realizing the set goal of this work.
Again, programme evaluation being a new concept in Nigeria. Must be embraced and strengthen to enable re-engineering of subsequent programmes i.e. poverty alleviation programmes in future.
1.6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework of this study adopt the system analysis techniques.
Apart from the theories and model of policies analysis, there are several techniques or tools, which are used the planning, analyses evaluation and management of policies, and programmers. One of such theories is the system analysis as used in this work.
System analysis involves the application of explicit systematic comprehensive and of qualitative analysis to decision making problems it comprises a reasoned and deductive approach to problem rewiring decisions particularly government problems and programmes6.
It serves as a base in providing rational criteria to aid policies makers and programmes managers. The emphases is therefore quantitative method and analysis.
The goal is an efficient play. In respect of programmes like the poverty alleviation programmes, the goals 1 theories favourable ratio between the value of resource. expanded and benefit obtained.
The inherent problem in the human side is execution of programmes is very paramount as the spontaneous decisions reached whether positive or negative effect the programme and it mode of evaluation. specifically, systematic analysis and objectives…
1. Clear determination of goals and objectives
2. Determination of most cost beneficial, cost effective approach in relation to problem environment and objectives
3. Estimations of quantitative terms the cost and resources required and benefit of each alternatives
4. A criteria for choosing the proffered alternative based on objectives, cost and benefit
5. Determinations of alternative means or system for alttaining goals and objectives.
6. A description of the relationship between objective, alternatives, costs benefit and problem environment
7. Advise a public official on most favourable alternative or combination of alternative based on the above model and criteria?
It is believed that the system analysis within it’s best way possible favourable explain the ideal step to step evaluation of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria.
The English Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary
defined methodology light of a body of method, rules and postulate employed by a discipline8. it could also be the analysis of the principle of procedures of inquiring in a particular field. Therefore research methodology simple put in research procedures.
The target of populations here are Nigeria living in a geographical area known as Nigeria. The sane and data shall be derived from Theroux out of the World Bank and IIIMF on the federal office of statistics poverty prime for Nigeria: 1980-1996 in draft National Policies of Poverty Eradication (2003). Evaluation of poverty and welfare in Nigeria (1985-92) in Canagarajah, et al (1997) shall also be closely looked into.
We shall take a look at other journals book and materials written by renown writers and analyst shall be adopted to butters in clear terms the underpinning of this research work.
The study shall fundamentally adopt the case study approach with historical lining that is, the forth republic Obasanjo poverty alleviation programme shall be one basis of evaluating pre and post factors analysis of eradication of poverty in Nigeria. With this failure and successes will be front lines in our course of study. With the help of the system’s theory. The policy and programme of eradicating poverty shall be viewed as it relates to the output of the political system.
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