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1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is the most populous countries in Africa with a diverse cultural heritage. The country has a majority groups. The majority groups include the Hausa/ Fulani in the North, the Yoruba speaking people in the South/West and the Igbo speaking people in the Eastern part. These groups, because of their opportunistic positions have been seen as consistently dominating the political as well as economic scene before and after the attainment of independence in 1960 and this has led to agitations population of about 140 million with not less than 250 ethnic groups, three (3) of which are the for state creation by the marginalized groups, however, “the more states were created, the more the complaints of marginalization and inequality by new minorities against the new majorities in each state” (Abdulrahman, 2006).
Consequently, the proliferation of ethno-religious and political turbulence in the country is therefore necessitated on one hand by cultural, communal and religious differences and on the other hand by fear of domination nursed by the minority groups. Contrary to the reality of the Nigerian situation, Osaghae and Suberu (2005) argued that the fact that a state is diverse in terms of culture, traditions, religious and ethnic groupings does not suggest that conflict is indispensable, but when mobilization around identities occurs or they are politicized only then they constitute the bases for conflict. There are evidences of diverse countries in the world (diversity in terms of ethnic, cultural and religious) that have taken advantage of their diversity to better the lots of their citizenry and enjoy a reasonable level of peace and stability. Notable among these countries are Tanzania, Switzerland, India, Belgium, and in fact the United States. While some diverse countries in the world have taken advantage of their diversity in Nigeria it has remained an insurmountable difficulty. The nation’s diversity continues to threaten the unity of the country and the deepening of her nascent democracy thereby making the future of the country unpredictable. This is reflected in the occurrence and re-occurrence of ethno-religious and political conflicts and violence before and after independence, (Osaghae, 2005).
However, the demands and movements rather than help in resolving the conflicts, generated new conflicts. It is our contention that rather than seek for re-integration with Kiths the emphasis should be on peaceful co-existence. Needless to say African countries with greater mix of these colonial anomalies impinging on the free operation and functioning of ethnic, religious, cultural and spatial identities and sensibilities, faced enormous, in fact, gargantuan development tasks mediated and modulated by the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these critical determinants of sustainable economic development in Nigeria. Sustainable development entails not only economic development but equitable distribution of economic benefits such as equitable provision of basic needs, remedy of social inequalities and environmental damages. It can be achieved only in time of peace, (Ajala, 2008).
Therefore, peaceful co-existence entails living together in peace rather than in constant hostility. The notion of peaceful co-existence is, like all such notions in the social sciences, better understood contextually and thematically, (Edwin, 2014).
In other words, the desire for peaceful existence is part of humanity and has dominated and continued to dominate international, national and local/community efforts at promoting the well-being of the people. For instance, following the political independence of some African countries, and their desire to protect and defend their independence, Ghana as well as Egypt jointly sought solace in peaceful co-existence as a tool for development. Consequently, they issued the principles of peaceful co-existence as pillars on which to base their developmental aspirations, (Wen, 2004).
In Nigeria, this notion of Peaceful Co-existence makes enormous sense for the promotion of sustainable economic development in Kaduna state; it falls far short of expectations at the local government levels. At these levels, peaceful co-existence has become an issue that is plagued by fear and lack of trust which characterize the relationship between persons and communities at the local level due to the fact that the people that are supposed to be drivers and supporters of peaceful coexistence have been involved in different social, economic and political activities that sometimes brings them into conflict and these are the same people that mobilizes the populace to participate in ensuring peaceful co-existence. In this light, the people are always suspicious because they have seen the antecedents of these leaders, find it difficult to trust their resolve for peaceful co-existence and as such refrain from Participating, thus leading to the consequence of disunity and strife that are ingredient of underdevelopment (Otunde, 2014).
1.3 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In the whole world today, peaceful co-existence has become the catalyst for development and foreign direct investment. Nigeria as a nation state has witnessed unprecedented level of conflicts over the years with devastating effects or consequences on the socio-economic situation of the nation like the destruction of lives and properties. The problems and challenges associated with violent conflict in Nigeria in most cases hinder the growth and development of democracy, unity and harmonious living.
The inability of people to collaborate with relevant governmental agencies in promoting peaceful co-existence has been blamed for turning the society into a theatre of war. This has led to political and ethno – religious conflict across the length and breadth of the country, with a litany of destruction on its trail plunging the people into poverty, unemployment, disunity etc. Peaceful co-existence is one of the issues canvassed or incorporated to be the needed ingredient to promote economic development, this position is opposed to the present realities in Nigeria where local communities that are said to be peaceful are lacking in developmental projects.
Kaduna south local government area of Kaduna state have witnessed violent clashes over the years with the recent one being the 2011post election conflict with varying degrees of destruction. These has resulted in pronounce poverty, unemployment of youths and adults and underdevelopment`. Consequently, peaceful co-existence has eluded the local government area and this is blamed essentially on the non participatory stand of the populace. To this end, this research seeks to examine; the problems associated with the non participation of the people in promoting peaceful co-existence that usually results in violent clashes in Kaduna south Local Government area.
The problem under investigation by this research study is peaceful co-existence and economic development in Nigeria, that development is a product of peaceful co-existence but the disturbing question that needs to be addressed is why is economic development elusive in communities that work together in fostering peaceful co-existence.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In line with the above research problems, this research work will attempt to answer the following research questions.
1. To what extent do people of Kaduna south local government participate and contribute on developmental policies?
2. To what extent has peaceful co-existence impacted on the economic activities of people of Kaduna south local government?
1.5 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research hopes to achieve the following objectives:
1. To assess the level of participation and contribution of people of Kaduna south local government on developmental policies.
2. To assess the impact of peaceful co-existence on the economic activities of the people of Kaduna south local government.
1.6 RESEARCH PROPOSITION
The following propositions are considered in this research work:
1. Peaceful Co-existence leads to Economic Development.
2. There is no correlation between Peaceful Co-existence and Economic Development.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is very important because it is going to find out the extent to which peaceful co-existence impacts positively on the lives of the people of Kaduna south local government, particularly their economic activities.
This research will also identify the factors responsible in militating against and inhibiting the level of economic development despite the peaceful coexistence in Kaduna south local government.
Subsequently, the research will proffers measures and devices means and solution to reducing and if possible eliminating these plights.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to the Kaduna South local government. The work is also restricted to the Peaceful Co-existence and Economic Development from 2009 - 2014. This is not unconnected with lack of adequate finance and time limitation.
1.9 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The quantitative research methodology was adopted for this research study in which a structured questionnaire was used to collect information from the target respondents who are all from Kaduna South Local Government Area. Primary data was collected and processed in the study. The qualitative research methodology adopted becomes imperative because of the population characteristics and a representative nature of the sample of the population for the study. A sample size of (60) was adopted and a cluster sampling technique was applied for the selection, where the sample population is divided into clusters of three (3) groups, and a simple random sample of the groups is selected. Data can be collected from two sources, that is, primary and secondary sources. Data collected from primary sources is known as primary data, and data collected from secondary sources are called secondary data.
Furthermore, primary data also known as raw data is gotten from the field with the use of questionnaire and interviews as the instrument of data collection. While the secondary data are literatures, both online and offline which include written documents such as government publications, documentaries, newspapers and the internet.
1.10 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
Peaceful Co-existence: In which simple means living together was a theory developed and applied by the Soviet Union at various points during the cold war in the context of primarily Marxist Leninist foreign policy and was adopted by Soviet-influenced “Socialist states” that they could peacefully coexist with the capitalist bloc (i.e., non-socialist states). This was in contrast to the antagonistic contradiction principle that communism and capitalism could never coexist in peace. Kulski (1959).
Peaceful Coexistence: Could also mean competition without war, or a policy of peace between nations of widely differing political system and ideologies, especially between communist and non-communist nations. It is also define as a living together in peace rather than in constant hostility. Richard (1973).
Development: It is a multidimensional process that normally connotes change from a less to a more desirable state. Development is a normative concept, and there is no single accepted definition. Some people agree that development must be relative to time, place and circumstance and can not be reduced to one universally applicable formula. Otunde (2004).
Development has been defined as the fulfillment of the necessary conditions for the realization of the potential of human personality, which translates into reduction in poverty, inequality and unemployment. Development has also been characterized more simply as the increasing satisfaction of basic needs such as food, Seers (1972).
Economic Development: This can be assessed in terms of certain criteria. They are one reduction of the poverty level of the mass of the people, high rate of employment opportunities, the reduction of the level of inequality, the provision of modern infrastructural facilities and the general upliftment of the living standard of the people, Soba (2005).
An economist, Dudley Seer (1972), in defining development based on economic terms said “the questions to ask about a country development are therefore: what has been happening to poverty, what has been happening to unemployment, what has been happening to inequality. If all these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned”. Seers (1972).
Local Government: It is the lower level of government in a modern state that is legally distinct. According to the United Nation’s division of public administration (1988), local government is a political division of a nation (or in a federal system, a state) which is constituted by law and has substantial control of local affairs, including the powers to impose taxes or exact labour for prescribed purposes. The government body of such an entity is elected or otherwise locally selected.
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