INSECURITY, A THREAT TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER DELTA AVENGERS)

INSECURITY, A THREAT TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER DELTA AVENGERS)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is a well-known fact that socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural increase in size and development can only be achieved in a peaceful and well secured environment. This is so because without an enabling environment which production, industrial and trade activities can take place and progress; development will always remain remembrance. As such, funds that are meant for developmental purposes are being channel into tackling insecurity in the country. With theses, private investors will also be disengaged from investing in an unsecured environment or country. The rising rate of terrorism, arm robbery, kidnappings, corruption, insurgency and vandalism of local and national assets in Nigeria contributes greatly to the extremely high rate of threat to security of lives and property in general. Due to lack of adequate security of lives and property of its citizenry is a strong hindrance and barrier to great and meaningful development. A high rate of fear will discourage both domestic and foreign investors from investing. At the center of these, many of these conflicts are the gate way to resources and control over the distribution of benefits. They struggle for these resources have led to a wide range of insecurity, taking advantage and the pursuit of self-defense strategies across the country. Some of the reasons and causes of this violence include poverty, unemployment; strive for money, politics, corruption, arms of aggrandizement, the high rate in armed groups, religious based violence and election fraud. This problem signifies dividing lines in these communities which have led to an elevated tension between and within these groups.

The effects of violence and corruption on a nation’s economy are very damaging. A nation waved with corruption and violence cannot be possible economically; neither can the system produce enough support and strong feelings required for the survival of a government under the direct rule of the people of its jurisdiction. This is a state in Nigeria where corruption has become part and parcel of the political culture. Corruption has intensively deprived Nigerians the benefit of economic and industrial development due to scarce availability of resources which should have been put in place to enhance developmental project which have gone into private foreign accounts.

Corruption is widely spread in Nigeria, not because the people here are different from other parts of the world, but because the conditions and situations here are ripe for it. There are many factors that make this possible. The inspiration to earn income from among the inhabitant is relatively stronger; this is made worst by high rate of poverty, unemployment and low salaries. In many developing countries Nigeria inclusive, the act of accountability is generally weak. Political competition and civil liberties are often limited. Laws and principles of ethics in governance are poorly developed, implemented and the legal institutions charged with enforcing them are not prepared.147,148.

The incidence of June 2011 bombing of the Nigeria Police Force Headquarters as well as September bombing of United Nations building in Abuja has been seen by many as a daring assault not only on the nation’s intelligence but as pointer to the fact that no one is safe.

The general state of insecurity in Nigeria presently lends credence to the report that kidnapping is an offshoot of the Niger Delta crisis. This insurgency has thrown a huge cloak of insecurity not just over the entire south-south geopolitical zone, but also the southeast, and southwest. Kidnapping gangs have made the two zones their haven. No person is spared in this new wave of crime that seems to have superseded armed robbery and other forms of crimes. However, the security challenge this poses to the state of Nigeria is better understood against existing prove that even government officials, leaders and traditional rulers are not set aside.

This has led to some of these officials and leaders relocating their families outside these geopolitical zones or outside the country. What the current pattern of violence is registered on the psyche of Nigerians is that the government security equipments are unable to guarantee the safety and security of lives and properties. This would, therefore, impact on the human security of the people as the situation encourages fear, while at the same time limiting and hindering the peoples’ ability to develop economically. The state’s capacity to attract investors becomes limited as a result of the insecurity. Okolo,B. The State of Insecurity in Nigeria. In Nigeria world.com. 2009.

Nigeria, being the world’s most populated African nation is also the largest producer of oil and gas in Africa. “Whereas the oil produced in the Niger delta is the life wire of the Nigerian economy, oil has failed to translate to regional prosperity and development in the Niger delta as a result of insecurity” (Kimiebi, 2010). Instead, the region has been rewarded with massive environmental degradation and political and economic marginalization. The violent repression of peaceful dissent exemplified by Ken Saro – Wiwa and the Ogoni eight saga, has been the preferred method of the federal government in addressing agitations from the Niger delta over the years. This created an environment of anger, desperation and violence.

The combination of the activities of the oil companies and the government led to emergence of various armed groups operating under such names as Egbesu Boys, Movement for the Survival of the Ijaw Ethnic Nationality (MOSEIN), Joint Revolutionary Council, MENBUTU, Arogbo Freedom fighters, Niger Delta Avengers and the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND). The activities of these groups which included kidnapping of foreign nationals bodies working with the oil companies have created a state of general insecurity in the region. This has negatively impinge the monolithic Nigerian economy as it has affected the inflow of foreign direct investment into the country which seriously needed to achieve economic growth and development. The adoption and implementation of amnesty programme for the militants by the federal government in 2009, has not been able to translate to increased inflow of foreign direct investment three years after, as renewed cases of kidnapping and oil theft have continued to underscore the perennial problem of insecurity in the region. This brings to the fore the need for a holistic programme aimed at addressing the genuine needs of the region beyond pacifying aggrieved militants or community leaders.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The increase wave of violence of terrorism, insurgency, arms trafficking, kidnappings, arm robbery, ethnic crisis etc constitutes a devastating threat to the security of lives and property of the Nigeria citizenry.

This research intends to investigate insecurity as a threat to national development.

1.3      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1 To appraise the nature of insecurity in Nigeria

2      To determine the causes of insecurity in Nigeria

3      To determine the effect of insecurity on national development        in Nigeria

4      To determine measures to mitigate and eliminate insecurity I in Nigeria.

 

1.4.    RESEARCH   QUESTIONS

1.  What is the nature of insecurity in Nigeria?

2.  What  are the causes and effect of insecurity in Nigeria?

3.  What   are the measures to mitigate and eliminate insecurity in Nigeria?

1.4      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1 To appraise the nature of insecurity in Nigeria

2      To determine the causes of insecurity in Nigeria

3      To determine the effect of insecurity on national development        in Nigeria

4      To determine measures to mitigate and eliminate insecurity I in Nigeria.

1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study shall  provide an analysis of the nature , causes and effect of insecurity  on national development in Nigeria with a view to determine measures to mitigate and eliminate the trend.

It shall also serve a veritable source of information on issues of   insecurity and national development in Nigeria

1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

H0: The level of national development in Nigeria is high

H1: The level of national development in Nigeria is low

H0: The level of insecurity in Nigeria is low

H1: The level of insecurity in Nigeria is high

H0: The effect of insecurity on national development in Nigeria is low

H1: The effect of insecurity on national development in Nigeria is high

1.7      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The    research is focused on appraising insecurity as a threat to national development in Nigeria

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8      DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

THREAT

Fay (2007); states that threat is any circumstance of event with the potential to cause harm to a system in the form of destruction, disclosure, modification of data or denial of service. This suggest that threat may be in deed or word and it includes activities that constitute danger, risk, hazards and menace which are capable of intimidating an individual.

DEVELOPMENT

ROGER(1976) describe development as the type of social change in which new ideas are introduce within a  social system to produce higher capital incomes and levels of living through more production,  Method and improved social organization

 





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