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Background of the study
Terrorism according to lodge is an illegitimate means of attempting to effect political change by the indiscriminate use of violence (Lodge 1988:5). Also Madunagu (2001:51) maintains that terrorism is “the use of violence to achieve political objectives”. The bottom line of the above definitions is that terrorism is an aspect of political violence. Since September 11, 2001, multiple attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and pentagon in the United States of America, terrorism has become a House Hold discussion in the world. Boko Haram according to Dr. Anslem Dilichukwu Omenma in one of his presentation at Caritas University political science seminar day, is traceable to the militia group called ECOMOG which enjoyed the patronage of top politicians in other parts of the northern Nigeria, began to patronize the group through budgetary allocations. The
group, Nigeria‟s security has been threatened and it has also affected the economy.
The project is therefore an attempt at a critical study to show how Boko Haram has affected the economy either positively or negatively. It has been noted that Boko Haram is regarded as terrorist group that has affected Nigeria‟s economy especially in the north, attempts would be made to see how this sect has really affected the economy of Nigeria and possibly recommend lasting solutions to the menace, so that the peace and stability which the country has longed for would be achieved and there would be an end to terrorism in Nigeria.
A cursory look around the world will reveal that for many countries under this dispensation, have also suffered and are still suffering from terrorist attacks. For instance, the United States of America which has lasted for almost two hundred years since the 18th century still suffered in the hands of Osama Bin Laden before he was finally killed in 2011. Also Israel, Pakistan and even some other countries in
Africa have had terrorist‟s attacks that have rendered peace and stability almost a mirage. Example, Libya in 1986 was attacked by the United States of America.
In Nigeria Boko Haram snowballed into national menace after the 2011 general elections, the northern governors who had relationship with the sect began to withdraw their patronages and eventually abandoned them to their fate. (The Nation 2011:13). Most scholars and analysts tend to subscribe to the opinion that terrorism is a political expression and not a criminal act. As a result they agree that terrorist groups across the world have a common adversary in the status quo, represented by the regime in power, the political system of the economic system. In their view therefore, the major objective of terrorists is to disrupt the statusquo or dismantle the regime in power so as to impose their own values on the rest of the society.
However since the terrorists usually lack willing public support and face stiff suppression from the government, they always resort to
indiscriminate violence on a tactical and strategic basis to spread fear and intimidation and persuade the public of the validity of their cause (Lodge, 1988:3). All terrorist acts involve violence or equally important, the threat of violence. The Islamic militant sect, Boko Haram has been terrorizing Nigeria‟s population for almost two years, sapping economic development in the northern part of the country. According to “focus Nigeria” an interactive programme on television, 2012, the insurgency has brought about the demise of business in the country most especially in the northern parts. For instance, traders who come from all over Nigeria and neighboring countries to buy textiles in Kano, no longer frequent the market again and the market is not as busy as it use to be. The study is set to investigate how this menace has eaten deep into our economy.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The emergence of Boko Haram insurgency has introduced a terrorist dimension, hitherto unknown, into the criminal space in Nigeria. Series of bombings have been carried out by the sect, as well as taking hostage of innocent citizens. Even the United Nations Building in Abuja was not spared in the bombing spree. In rich as well as poor countries, terrorism exerts a heavy toll on national economies. It is inevitable that the economic impact of terrorism would be more felt in unsophisticated mono-cultural low-income economies than they would be felt in highly advanced, diversified industrial economies. Therefore, the continued rise in terrorism activities in the country, if not checked, may result in greater investor apathy for the country and resulting in low inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and would make institutional investors look for other stable economies to invest their money. On the state of the country, when people feel insecure, their appetite to invest, to buy or rent from the product of investment reduces; and that is why all over the world, any country that radiates an environment of insecurity naturally repels investment initiatives from both the international community and its own local investors. Hence, terrorism is a threat to the economic, political and social security of a nation and a major factor associated with underdevelopment; because it discourages both local and foreign investments, reduces the quality of life, destroys human and social capital, damages relationship between citizens and the states, thus undermining democracy, rule of law and the ability of the country to promote development (Adebayo, 2013). However, the researcher is analyzing terrorism and its effect to the socioeconomic development of Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the effect of terrorism on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria.
2. To examine the level of terrorism activities in Maiduguiri and Borno State.
3. To identify the factors limiting the socioeconomic development of Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of terrorism on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria?
2. What is the level of terrorism activities in Maiduguiri and Borno State?
3. What are the factors limiting the socioeconomic development of Nigeria?
HO: There is no significant relationship between terrorism and socioeconomic development
HA: There is significant relationship between terrorism and socioeconomic development
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The findings from this study will educate the government and the general public on the extent of damage done by the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Maiduiguri and Borno state and its effect of the socioeconomic development with a view of resolving the crisis.
2. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on terrorism and its effect on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria will cover the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Maiduiguri and Borno state and its effect of the socioeconomic development.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Adebayo, A. A. (2013). Social Factors Affecting Effective Crime Prevention and Control in Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Sociology, 3(4); 71-75.
Awake (2008). “When terrorism will end”. June edition, pp1-6. Barga, T. (2012) “Towards a theology of peace: A panacea to terrorism and violence”. Jos Studies, Vol. 20, pp. 1-24.
Igbuzor, S. L. (2011). Borno State Ban Motorcycle and Commercial Bikes. The Vanguard, July, 6.
Oche, P. H. (2001). Political violence and Terrorism Motifs and Motivations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nwanegbo, I. and Odigbo, G. (2013). The President signs the Anti – Terrorism Bill and 13 other Harmored Bill into Law. The Vanguard, April 6.
Rourke, I. G. (2008). Boko Haram Leader Killed. Daily Trust, July, 31.
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