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This study examined the relationship between human resources management practices and job performance in Akwa Ibom State civil service from 2003-2014. This was premised on the observed low performance and poor attitude to work by civil servants across the various sectors of the service. Hence the objective was to examine how practices like: pay reward system, working conditions and staff promotions have impacted on the job performance of civil servants in the employ of Akwa Ibom State Civil service. The survey research design was adopted for this study, hence, the administration of a structured questionnaire to 400 respondents from the public and 200 respondents from the civil service. The key informant Interview (KII) and Focused Group Discussion (FGDs) were also utilized to get information from top civil servants for the study. To complement the above, hard data were also obtained from the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service Commission to further analyze the research questions. The findings of this study revealed that the present salary scale- CONAKESS has not been able to prevail on the current economic situation in the country; while the working conditions and inconsistency in the promotion of staff has not been motivating enough. Based on the above, it was recommended amongst others that, the government should recognize and support an adequate pay reward system that relates existing pay to the dynamic trend of economic realities.



1.1       Background to the Study

The primary role of every government today is to provide certain key services to its teaming population by responding with various supports through the state bureaucracy. In Nigeria, such services are executed through Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), all of which work within specified rules and regulations to achieve the government objectives by implementing public policies, as well as, executing projects and programmes. The success of such programmes however depends on the effectiveness of the stock of human resources available to the services of the state.

In the view of Naveed, Usman and Bushra (2011), organisations are said to be efficient when they derive maximum output from the available resources. Although an organisation possesses many of the assets but human resource is considered to be the most valuable asset of any organisation. Non-human resources become effective for an organisation only with the help of labor force (human resource). In the present world of globalization, a competent work force is believed to be a competitive edge for any organisation. To be successful in the corporate world, organisations need to have a highly motivated, loyal and satisfied workforce. This is achieved through a thorough understanding and application of all the ingredients necessary for enhancing the satisfaction level of employees.

Reward systems are arguably at the heart of employee performance. This assertion is premised on the understanding that reward systems have the potency of engendering higher levels of performance in organizations through the stimulation and direction of employees along the path of goal accomplishment (Ejumudo, 2011). As a matter of fact, employees are the most critical of all organizational resources and their capacity to function and meet the expected standards is a function of both their inward potentials and the outward environment in which they operate. This nature-nurture perspective of explaining the indicators of employee performance underscores the indispensability of reward systems as an integral part of organizational environments.

Thus, it is instructive to assert that well rewarded employees are much likely to feel valued and cherished by their organizations. Despite the arguably important nexus between reward systems and employee performance in both public and private sector organizations, it is worrisome to note that the much-desired employee performance that is a critical input for sustainably increasing organizational productivity is largely absent and consequently a constraining factor to the actualization of organizational goals and objectives. For instance, while Akerele (1991) blamed the low productivity level of Nigerian workers on several factors, particularly the failure of employers to provide adequate compensation for hard work. The author further emphasized that the real success of any organization originates from employees willingness to use their creativity, abilities and know-how in the direction of their organizations’ growth and development path in response to the favourably stimulating and encouraging reward practices.

The public sector of every nation is germane to her national development. Perhaps, this accounts for why a larger proportion of the Nigeria national budget has been voted for the creation and sustenance of public enterprises (Adeyemo and Salami, 2008). Through its ministries, departments and agencies, government puts in place policies, programmes and services that help galvanize development at all levels, engender economic progress and increase trust and connection between the managers of the state and the people (Imhonopi and Urim, 2013).

On the contrary, the performance of public sector in Nigeria has been replete with varying contradictions (Adeyemo and Salami, 2008) and has even become an epitome of all that is corrupt, mediocre and fraudulent. As it stands, the public sector in Nigeria has virtually collapsed. Politics and politicisation has systematically bastardised the very essence of the sector. Consequently, morale is weak, remuneration is very poor, efficiency is no more, competence has been ditched and merit abandoned (Kagara, 2009).

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

With the emergence of the modern state, the civil service evolve not only to formulate policies but also to effectively implement them. This is done through the institutions of government and Civil Service is one of such. In this regard, the Civil Service Commission is saddled with the responsibility of designing, formulating and implementation of public policy and discharge government functions and development programmes in an effective and efficient manner. To achieve these goals, that is, the implementation of government programmes and plans, the Civil Service Commission is positioned to employ well qualified staff into the various Ministries, Departments and Agencies of the state to achieve these purposes. To this end, the Human Resource Department is established and positioned to ensure that staff employed into the service is well qualified and capable of carrying out effectively these task of implementing government policies and programmes.

In African countries and Nigeria in particular, development efforts and the effective implementation of government policies are threatened by the incompetency and ineffectiveness of the civil servants. Various reasons accounts for these poor performance. This low performance level gave rise to the various civil service reforms Nigeria has had which was aimed at repositioning the service.

The Civil Service in Nigeria has witnessed very low level of performance as a result of employment of un-qualified staff, low professional standard, lack of accountability resulting in inefficiency, ineffectiveness and poor productivity culminating in the non-achievement of government policies and programmes since government plans and programmes are achieved through the MDAs which are subsumed under the Civil Service Commission.

This has posed serious challenges to the entire system because without effective and efficient Civil Service, government policies and programmes will not be effectively implemented since the Civil Service is the instrument or medium through which government carries out the task of delivering services to the people.

However, the implication of the poor performance of the civil servants (civil service) is that the desire by the citizenry for good governance will be a mirage because of the low productivity on the part of the staff. Good governance involves a number of variables such as the provision of good roads, health facilities, educational facilities, electricity etc. All these are provided through the Ministries, Departments and Agencies of government hence the effective performances of the staff under the employ of the Civil Service will to a great extent guarantee social development. Accordingly, another important aspect of human resource management practices that impinge directly on the performance of employees is the remuneration. To this end, the onus also lies on the human resource management of every organisation to ensure that there is a good compensation plan, as well as, a good reward system that is capable of boosting the efforts of the employees to give their best to the organisation.

To have an effective, efficient and performance driven Civil Service that will deliver to the people the basic social services, employment of persons must be based on merit and professionalism, the remuneration and the reward system in general must be that can encourage staff to give their best.  Accordingly, the condition under which staff are working should be conducive enough for them to deliver services to the public without any hitch. This implies that the working environment should be organised to make work as interesting as possible. For instance, promotion must be given to staff as at when due because, hard-working staff must be properly rewarded. Failure to promote staff as at when due is capable of de-motivating an employee from giving his/her best to the services of the state.

In view of the above, what is the relationship between human resource management practices and performance of the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?

The following research questions guided the formulation of the objectives and hypotheses of this study:

i.          What is the impact of pay reward system on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?

ii.         What is the impact of good working condition on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?

iii.        What is the impact of staff promotion and job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?

iv.        What measures should be adopted to enhance better performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service?

1.3       Objectives of the Study

Main Objective:

The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between human resource management practices and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

Specific Objectives include:

i.          To evaluate the relationship between pay reward systems on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

ii.         To assess the relationship between good working conditions on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

iii.        To establish the relationship between staff promotion on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

iv.        To identify measures that should be adopted to enhance better performance in the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

1.4       Research Hypotheses

i.          Pay reward system tends to impact positively on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

ii.         Good working Condition tends to impact positively on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

iii.        Staff promotion tends to impact positively on job performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service.

1.5       Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focused on the human resource management practices and performance in Akwa Ibom State Civil Service from 2003-2014. The study examined the human resource management practices that help to shape and enhance performance of the Akwa Ibom state civil service in selected commission/ministry/department which included; Akwa Ibom State Civil Service Commission, the Ministry of Education. For the assessment of the various services offered by the government, members of the general public were engaged. For the purpose of this study, human resource management practices like pay reward system, good working condition and staff promotion were examined vis-à-vis their relationship with the performance of the Akwa Ibom state Civil Service.

1.6       Significance of the Study

This study will be of benefit to the government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), and the society in general. Empirically, this study will bring to bear the challenges faced by the staff and how to resolve them for the benefit of every member of the society that access government services. This study will also benefit policy makers; human resource/personnel managers because it will help in giving proper direction and guide on the development, implementation and operation of human resource policy and strategies that will enhance staff performance for the benefit of both the staff and the organisation.

Furthermore, this study will also be of importance to the government and working organisations in that it will bring about a proper understanding of why human resources/manpower development should be effectively implemented for the achievement of organisational goals and the development of the society. This study, it is also hoped will be of immense benefit to other public organisations by contributing to the way they plan for the human resource needs of the organisation as well as creating an enabling environment for the functionality of their employees.

Theoretically, this study will contribute immensely to t

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