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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Herdsmen and town men clashes have remained the most preponderant resource-use conflict in Nigeria (Ajuwon, 2004; Fasona and Omojola, 2005). The necessity to provide food of crop and animal origin, as well as raw materials for industry and export in order to meet evergrowing demands, has led to both “intensification and extensification” of land use (Nyong and Fiki, 2005).
The competition between these two agricultural land user-groups, however, has often times turned into serious overt and covert manifestation of hostilities and social friction in many parts of Nigeria. The conflicts have demonstrated high potential to exacerbate the insecurity and food crisis particularly in rural communities where most of the conflicts are localized, with reverberating consequences nationwide.
In Nigeria, production of arable crops is essentially the prominent feature of agricultural activities. Indeed, almost all farmers in Nigeria cultivate one or more arable crops for food and income. According to Fayinka (2004), Nigerian agricultural production is dominated by rural-based small scale arable crop producers, who account for about 80% of total food requirement. In a study on production of some major arable crops in Nigeria, Okuneye et al, (2001) revealed that the average farm size in arable crop production was 4.58 ha. Central Bank of Nigeria, CBN, (2005) reported that 36.25 and 82.41 million hectares of arable crops were cultivated in 2004 and 2005 respectively.
The CBN report further stated that production of arable crops increased from 88.3million tones in 2001 to 111.8 million tones in 2005. By far the most widely grown arable crop in Nigeria is maize, accounting for 6.6 and 7.5 million hectares in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Maize is grown almost in every part of the country. Most arable crop farmers rely on rainfall to produce, with farming activities normally beginning as soon as the onset of rains. Apart from being veritable sources of income for farmers; arable crops are processed into other useful items at industrial and household levels. According to Lambrou and Laub (2006), 75 percent of today’s food comes from 12 arable crops and five animal species, with just three arable crops (rice, maize and wheat) accounting for about 60 percent of the calories and proteins obtained from plants. Worldwide, arable crops enjoy remarkable dominance, playing significant roles in the socioeconomic lives of both rural and urban peoples. Arable crops include a wide range of annual crops of primary importance such as maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, cowpea, wheat, soybeans, melon, groundnut yam, vegetables and so on.
Agriculture is the human enterprise by which natural ecosystems are transformed into ones devoted to the production of food, fiber, and, increasingly, fuel. Given the current size of the human population, agriculture is essential. Without the enhanced production of edible biomass that characterizes agricultural systems, there would simply not be enough to eat. The land, water, and energy resources required to support this level of food production, however, are vast. Thus agriculture represents a major way in which humans impact terrestrial ecosystems.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study on herdsmen town men clashes and agriculture productivity came as a result of destruction of crops of town men by cattle of herdsmen, theft of cattle, and indiscrimination of defecation on roads. Finally, most of the research has been carried out on herdsmen conflict but not even a single research has been carried out on herdsmen town men clashes and agriculture productivity in Nigeria.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of herdsmen and town men clashes and agriculture productivity. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the effect of herdsmen conflict on agriculture productivity.
2. to determine the extent to which herdsmen clash with town men affect agricultural productivity.
3. to examine the relationship between clashes of herdsmen, town men, agricultural productivity and economic growth of the country.
4. to proffer possible solution.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the effect of herdsmen conflict on agriculture productivity?
2. What is the extent to which herdsmen clash with town men affect agricultural productivity?
3. What is the relationship between clashes of herdsmen, town men, agricultural productivity and economic growth of the country?
4. What is the possible solution to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Herdsmen and town men clashes has no significant effect on agricultural productivity in Nigeria.
H1: Herdsmen and town men clashes have a significant effect on agricultural productivity in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on herdsmen and town men clashes and agricultural productivity will be of immense benefit to the entire citizens and government of Nigeria in the sense that it will the government to set a law guiding the use of hate speeches, therefore both herdsmen and town men will avoid the use of hate speeches since it encourages anger and destroys unity. It will also enable the herdsmen and town men to bear in mind that actions that lead to distrust is bad and should be abandoned. It will also enable the government to make plans for reprisal violent attacks on the whole town and villages in the case of two persons will be discouraged and disarment should not be one side but from both sides.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on herdsmen and town men clashes and agriculture productivity is limited to Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
HerdsmenThe owner or keeper of a herd of domesticated animals.
TownA town is a human settlement
ClashesA violent confrontation.
Agriculture.The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
Productivity. Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
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