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1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Odewumi (2000) while referring to the 1970 United Nations Draft Recommendation on population census defined census as ‘the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analysing and publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time to all persons in a country or in a well delimited part of a country’ (Odewumi, 2000).
Population census is a terminology now restricted to complete enumeration of human population legally conducted at regular intervals, often every 10 years. Enumeration of people is not a recent phenomenon. It dates back to antiquity and stands as the most important source of demographic data. Records have shown that census started as far back as 3,000 B.C.
An ancient civilization was not exempted from population census. This was why ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Persia, Babylonia, Greece, Rome, Japan and China among others found it expedient to embark on population census. Some of these ancient civilizations conducted census of their people for the purposes of military recruitment, collection of taxes or other tribute and for communal labour.
Conflicts over national censuses are not only associated with ethnic rivalries for political power no rare they restricted to Africa alone. In Lebanon, for example, it is not ethnic but religious rivalry that is the source of census controversy and this is so because the competition for political control is between Muslims and Christians rather than rival ethnic groups. Any census that shows a relative increase against the other can therefore cause the crisis (Mazrui, 2005). Demographics are central to the political process in the United States. The constitutional basis of the census of population is to provide data for the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives and the process reaches down to the local level.
However, sometimes, there is equal elements of manipulation when redistricting-the reconfiguration of congressional districts (geographic areas) that each seat will represent. This is the so called “Gerrymandering”- when political boundaries are drawn solely for partisan gain. Here the majority party uses a mix of demography, geography, and politics to increase its majority without increasing its share of the vote after the census. (Weeks, 2012).
Jacob and Tenue (2004) define national integration as “a relationship of community among people within the same political entity… a state of mind or disposition to be cohesive, to act together, to be committed to mutual programmes.” They are thus referring to a society of oneness whose members are willing to live and work together harmoniously and share the same destiny.
Similarly, Coleman and Rosberg (2004) view national integration as the progressive reduction of cultural and regional tensions and discontinuities in the process of creating a homogeneous political community. In other words, this is the increasing promotion or emergence of peace through the breaking down of cultural and regional divides in the process of evolving a united state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The essence of census is to have compiled information that will be used to assess the current welfare needs of the population as well as to project future needs to assist planners make realistic future development needs. The problems that may bring about inability to have national integration or unity in a country as a result of conflict in census could be as a result of ethnicity or religiosity and so on; this might be such that the person heading the census unit would want to pull all the necessary resources to favour the tribe and religion which he/she belong, thereby resulting in crisis that might be capable of splitting apart the country. Finally, several researches have been carried out on the census crisis but not even a single research has been carried out on the effects of census crisis on the national integration.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the study is to determine the effect of census crisis on national integration. Other specific objectives of the study include:
1. to determine the extent to which census crisis affects national integration.
2. to determine the factors affecting national integration
3. to determine the importance of census on national integration.
4. to proffer possible solution to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the extent to which census crisis affects national integration?
2. What are the factors affecting national integration?
3. What is the importance of census on national integration?
4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Census crisis has no significant effect on national integration.
H1: Census crisis has a significant effect on national integration.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study on the effect of census crisis on national integration will be of immense benefit to the entire nation Nigeria in the sense that it will enable the government to do away with tribalism and religiosity and other vices that might lead to census crises, but things should be done to favour the masses irrespective of their tribe and their beliefs. So as to arrive at a successful national integration, else anything short of that conflict will definitely arise amongst the citizens. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on effects of census crisis is limited to national integration.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Census Is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
CrisisA time of intense difficulty or danger.
National IntegrationNational integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country.
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