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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The insignificance activities, sequel to the attainment of political independence in the 1960 in Nigeria were indeed inimical to the expectations of the great nationalists, who took the pain to secure the political independence. According to Coleman (2008), the emergent politics that rolled down to the path of electoral engineering in Nigeria from the wake of independence wore the aura of infirmity.
Albeit such derailment became highly influential in the
post-colonial era, the events that took place in the late 1940s, especially the
formation of ethnic-based political parties offered much to the new
development. Since the inception of election, elections in Nigeria democratic
experience, the country have continued to endure turbulent electoral atmosphere
with accompanying tension, the heightened tension created by competition for
public offices has exacerbated existing conflict and also created new ones.
Bieneu (2008) maintained that the resultant problems manifested in all spheres
of Nigeria’s social, economic and political life, thus giving impetus to
electoral violence. To this effect, electoral violence is therefore studied in
its multiple dimensions. Such endemic trend have in fact, manifested itself as
a monumental phenomenon
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of electoral violence on Nigerian democracy between 2007-2011, this is because, some of the elections conducted in Nigeria recently are said to be massively rigged couple with electoral violence and fraud across the states of Nigeria. Electoral violence as a social phenomenon which has largely prevailed in our political system is a trend which government must attempt to control if not completely abated. This study is therefore born out of the realization of the apparent invincibility of electoral violence in Nigeria.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study will proffer answers to the following
1. What is the effect of electoral violence on Nigerian democracy?
2. What are the factors responsible for electoral violence as experienced in 2007 and 2011 general election in Nigeria?
3. What is the role of political parties in perpetuating electoral violence in Nigeria’s electoral system?
4. What remedies are available for the persistent electoral violence in Nigeria
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study sought to know the effect of electoral
violence on Nigerian democracy. Specifically, the study sought to;
1. To identify and explain factors responsible for electoral violence as experienced in 2007 and 2011 general election in Nigeria.
2. To determine the role of political parties in perpetuating electoral violence in Nigeria’s electoral system.
3. To find remedies for the persistent electoral violence in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Electoral violence undermines democratic tenets and principles in Nigeria.
Hi: Electoral violence does not undermine democratic tenets and principles in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers
who intend to know more on this topic or other related topics and can also be
used by non-researchers to build more on their work.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study on the effect of electoral violence on Nigeria democracy is limited to 2011 election in bauchi state
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the
researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information
and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Election: An election is
a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to
hold public office.
Electoral Violence: The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) defines electoral violence as any harm or threat of harm to any person or property involved in the electionprocess, or the process itself, during the election period.
Democracy: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections
A. Abuh, Kano: Protests galore over primaries, The Guardian (Lagos), (2011).
W. Bieneu, 2008. Democracy and Violence: The Challenges of Communal Clashes, In A.A.B.
Coleman, L., (2008), Nigeria’s Struggle for Democracy and Good Governance, Ibadan University Press.
P.F. Adebayo and J.S. Omotola, Public perceptions of the 2007 Nigerian general elections, Journal of African Elections, 6(2) (2007). A.E. Afigbo, Background to Nigerian federalism: Federal features in the Colonial State, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 21(1991). S. Akhaine, Violence up North, The Guardian (Lagos), (2011).
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