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1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider corruption as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fieldstad & Isaksen (2008, p. 3) and Ogundiya (2009, p. 5) define corruption as “the betrayal of public trust for individual or sectional gain.” Obayelu went further to identify corruption as “efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of power for private benefit.” Corruption covers a broad spectrum of activities ranging from fraud (theft through misrepresentation), embezzlement (misappropriation of corporate or public funds) to bribery (payments made in order to gain an advantage or to avoid a disadvantage). From a political point of view, Aiyede (2006, p. 5) views corruption as “the abuse or misuse of public or governmental power for illegitimate private advantages.” His view corroborates the position of Lipset and Lenz (2000) that corruption is an effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private benefit at public expense. Tanzi (1998) adds that such abuse of public power may not necessarily be for one’s private benefit but for the benefit of one’s party, class, tribe, or family. Although corruption is global in scope, it is more pronounced in developing societies because of their weak institutions. It is minimal in developed nations because of existing institutional control mechanisms which are more developed and effective.
The effects of corruption on a nation’s economy are damaging. A nation inundated with corruption cannot be viable economically; neither can the system generate enough support/ affection required for the survival of democratic system. This is a situation in Nigeria where corruption has become part and parcel of the political culture. Corruption has indeed robbed Nigerians the benefit of economic development because scarce available resources that should have been deployed to execute development project have gone into private foreign accounts.
Corruption is widespread in Nigeria, not because the people are different from other parts of the world, but because the conditions are ripe for it. There are many reasons why this is so. The motivation to earn income from among the populace is relatively stronger; exacerbated by poverty, unemployment and low wages. In many developing countries Nigeria inclusive, accountability is generally weak. Political competition and civil liberties are often restricted. Laws and principles of ethics in governance are poorly developed and the legal institutions charged with enforcing them are ill-prepared. The research seeks to investigate corruption in Nigeria as a threat to sustainable Economic development using Ministry of Agriculture as a case study.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem confronting this research is to appraise corruption in Nigeria as a threat to sustainable economic development
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
1 What is the nature of corruption in Nigeria?
2 What are the causes of corruption in Nigeria?
3 What is the effect of corruption and unemployment on sustainable economic development in Nigeria?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1 To appraise the nature of corruption in Nigeria
2 To determine the causes and effect of corruption on sustainable economic development in Nigeria
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall project the ill effect of corruption on the economic development of Nigeria.
It shall also serve a veritable source of information on issues of corruption
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1. H0 there is no relationship between the corruption index and employment level.
H1 there is a relationship between the corruption index and employment level.
2. H0 level of corruption does not have an effect on sustainable economic development in Nigeria
H1 level of corruption does not have an effect on economic development in Nigeria
3. H0 there is no effect of corruption index and employment level on sustainable economic development in Nigeria.
H1 there is an effect of corruption index and employment level on sustainable economic development in Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study appraises corruption in Nigeria and elucidates its effect on sustainable economic development using Ministry of Agriculture as a case study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider corruption as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fjeldstad&Isaksen (2008, p. 3) and Ogundiya (2009, p. 5) define corruption as “the betrayal of public trust for individual or sectional gain.” Obayelu went further to identify corruption as “efforts to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense; or a misuse of power for private benefit.” Corruption covers a broad spectrum of activities ranging from fraud (theft through misrepresentation), embezzlement (misappropriation of corporate or public funds) to bribery (payments made in order to gain an advantage or to avoid a disadvantage). From a political point of view, Aiyede (2006, p. 5) views corruption as “the abuse or misuse of public or governmental power for illegitimate private advantages
ECONOMIC DEVEDLOPEMENT DEFINED
According to Imhonopi & Urim (2010), national development is the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, namely, by providing social amenities like good education, power, housing, pipe-borne water and others. The components of national development include economic development, socio-cultural empowerment and development and how these impact on human development. Without human development, which is the development of the human capital of a nation or its citizens, national development can be thwarted or defeated. In fact, human development is one basis for judging the effectiveness of the economic development component of national development (Ogboru, 2007; Ranis, Stewart, & Ramirez, 2000). As they observed, economic development expressed in GNP can increase human development by expenditure from families, government and organizations such as NGOs. With the increase in economic growth, families and individuals will likely increase expenditures with the increase in income. This increase can lead to greater human development. Streeten (1982) put it better when he said that development must be redefined as an attack on the chief evils of the world today such as malnutrition, disease,illiteracy, slums, unemployment and inequality. In other words, development must be measured in terms of jobs created, justice dispensed and poverty alleviated.
This is the ranking of countries according to the extent to which corruption is believed to exist. The corruption perception index was created in 1995 by Transparency International. It ranks almost 200 countries on a scale of zero to 10, with zero indicating high levels of corruption and 10 indicating low levels.
This simply means the level at which people are employed in Nigeria annually.
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