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1.1 Background of Study
Cannabis also known as marijuana is a psychoactive drug from the cannabis plant known as cannabis sativa intended for medical or recreational use (Vij, 2012). cannabis sativa is an annual plant belonging to family cannabaceae of the nettle order (urticales). The main psychoactive part of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). One of 483 known compound in plant (Ethan, 2013), including at least 65 other cannabinoids (Ethan,2013). Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food or tea or as an extract (Ashton, 2001). The administration of cannabis in man produces a spectrum of psychoactive effects including euphoria and relaxation, perceptual alterations, time distortion and the intensification of ordinary sensory experiences such as eating. Short term memory and attention, motor skills, reaction time and skilled activities are impaired while a person is intoxicated (Hall et al., 1994). There is also elevated fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness and even severed transient psychotic symptoms with cannabis consumption (Kanfmann et al., 2010).
Long-term side effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started as teenagers. Cannabis acts as central nervous system depressant at high closes (Huestis, 2002). In addition to the risk of developing addiction, several other harmful long-term effects of marijuana or cannabis use on health including adverse psychiatric effects of marijuana use include altered brain development and cognitive impairment including impaired neural connectivity in specific brain regions, decrease activity in the prefrontal regions and reduced volumes in the hippocampus (Gruber et al., 2011).
The effects have been found to be more profound in users who began marijuana use in adolescence or young adulthood (Rerguason et al., 2008). Other studies have found a correlation between the use of cannabis and the appearance of psychotic symptoms and the prevalence of psychotic disorders (Zammet et al., 2007). There is also evidence of a correlation between use of cannabis and decreased academic performance in addition to an increased likelihood of dropping out of school (Volkow et al., 2001).
These psychomotor effects of cannabis are mainly attributed to the Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent in cannabis sativa which acts by stimulating cannabinoid (CBI) receptor, located on the surface of the neurons to produce psychoactive effect. (Ameri,1999; Pertwee, 1997, 2005; Suizeroka et al., 2008). Cannabinoid receptors are also activated by endogenous ligand, the endocannabinoids, a family of endogenous arachidonic acid derivatives, including N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide) and the 2-arachidonoylglycerol which is synthesized by the cell membrane (Suguira etal.,2002). These delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol mimics anandamide, binding with cannabinoid receptor and active the neuron but the effect of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinoid are more potent and longer acting than endogenous neurotransmitter (Moreria, 2008) cannabinoid receptor activation regulates the release of multiple neurotransmitter including nor adrenaline, Gamma aminobutyric acid, serotonin and dopamine (Moreria, 2008). Cannabis sativa is being prescribed and used in several medical conditions. It is used in management of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, among cancer patients (Machado Rocha et al., 2008) and for relief of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients (Sastre-Garriga et al., 2011). Medical cannabis used to alleviate chronic pain and arthritis (Swift et al., 2005) and neuropathic pain caused by diabetes (Selvarajah et al., 2010) and to improve the wellbeing in patients with depression (Denson and Earleywine, 2006).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Cannabis as the nation’s largest nonprofit provider of addiction prevention, treatment and recovery services. cannabis being used as recreational drug is dangerous to many users and addictive to some and young people are particularly vulnerable. The human brain develops throughout adolescence and well beyond. Cannabis use can harm thinking learning and memory development and can contribute to mental health issues not to mention medical problems. Cannabis can also be used as a medicinal purpose for Parkinson’s diseases spasticity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to study the effect of cannabis on intelligence and movement.
The objectives of the study are:
1) To determines the effect cannabis on the brain
2) To investigate the effect of cannabis in reasoning and thinking
3) To investigate the effect of cannabis in judgment.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The most significant finding in this study is to understand how daily cannabis use affect neurotransmitter in the parietal lobe which brings about mental illness, problem in reasoning, making decision and reduction in intelligence quotient and memory working.
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