HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HEPATO-PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF HYDRO-ETHANOL SILK OF Zea-Mays EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

HYPOGLYCEMIC AND HEPATO-PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF HYDRO-ETHANOL SILK OF Zea-Mays EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

Globally, as of 2010, an estimated 285 million people had diabetes, with type 2 making up about

90% of the cases The management of diabetes without side effects is a major challenge in the

medical system.Silkof Zea maysfrom a variety of maize sources has been shown to have a range

of biological activities and potential health benefits such as hypoglycemia, antioxidant,

hypocholesteromic and hepatoprotective activities. The current research is aimed at evaluating

theHypoglycemic and Hepato-Protective Effects of Hydro-Ethanol Extract of Zeamayson

Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats. Twenty Five adult Wistar rats of both sexes were used,

with average weight of 150gms and they were randomly divided into five groups. The animals in

groups II, III, IV and V were exposed to 160 mg/kg per body weight of the

Alloxanintraperitoneally to induce diabetes mellitus; only those rats with blood glucose above

200 mg dl-1 were selected for the study. After induction of diabetes, animals of group II, III, IV

and V received Zea mayssilk extract (0.6 g/kg, 0.8 g kg-1) and Glibenclamide (1mg/kg) orally for

14 days respectively, while group I served as control and were administered with normal

saline. The therapeutic effects of Zea mays on blood glucose, liver function test (ALT, AST, and

ALP) were assayed including the histological architecture of the pancreas and liver.The diabetic

control group was characterized by a significant Increased (P ≤ 0.05)in Glucose concentration

and increased in the liver function test (ALT, AST, and ALP). This present work indicates that

hydro- ethanol extract ofZea mayssilkpossesses significant hypoglycaemic and hepato-protective

activity in vivo by reducing liver function enzymes, initiate regeneration of beta cell in the

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pancreas and restore the cyto-architecture of the liver in diabetes induced adult wistar rats within

the 14 days of treatment.

xvii


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood sugar (glucose) levels

are abnormally high (hyperglycemia), due to insufficient production or inappropriate

metabolism of insulin (Shoback, 2011). It is a chronic non-communicable disease which

generally starts insidiously over a period of long time, and even in the absence of symptoms,

hence called as a silent killer. Many individual are accidentally detected as a case of DM

when they are investigated for some other reasons like preoperative investigation. It is

characterized by a state of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level) due to insulin deficiency.

Insulin is an essential hormone produced by the beta cells of Langerhans of pancreas. It is

required for metabolism of glucose; in the absence of insulin, the body cannot metabolize

glucose hence it cannot be utilized for body functions leading to a state of chronic

hyperglycemia. If this hyperglycemia is not treated in due time it can lead to serious

consequences on body like damage nerve (neuritis) and blood vessels (micro-angiopathies and

atherosclerosis) (Sampatti, 2016).

In the year 2012, DM was a direct cause of death of 1.5 million people and most of them

(80%) belong to low and middle income countries. Asian countries contribute to more than

60% of world’s diabetic burden (Shoback, 2011). The prevalence of DM is expected to rise

from 285 million in the year 2010 to 438 million in 2030. WHO projects that DM will be the

7th leading cause of death by 2030 (Unwin et al., 2009).

There are two major forms of DM, t


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