EFFECTS OF CLOVE (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM) AND FERMENTED GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) SUPPLEMENTATIONS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HIGH FAT DIET-INDUCED TYPE 2 DIABETES IN RABBITS

EFFECTS OF CLOVE (SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM) AND FERMENTED GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) SUPPLEMENTATIONS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN HIGH FAT DIET-INDUCED TYPE 2 DIABETES IN RABBITS

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Abstract

The evaluation of makers for characterized underlined pathologies in diabetes mellitus

isuseful in prevention, monitoring and management of the disease. This studyaimed to

investigate the effects of clove buds and fermented ginger rhizome supplements

onblood glucose, insulin, insulin receptor, leptin levels, Lipid profile, thyroid

hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, oxidative stress and

lipid peroxidation biomarkers, liver enzymes and electrolytes levels in high fat diet

(HFD) induced type 2 diabetes(T2DM) in rabbits. Thirty male rabbits (8-10 weeks of

age) divided into six groups (n=5) were used for the study. Type 2 diabetes was

induced by feeding rabbits with a HFD (standard animal feed (SAF) 69% + Cholesterol

1% + Groundnut mill 20% + ground nut oil 10%) for 11 weeks, and animals with

blood glucose levels≥ 140 mg/dL were selected as type 2 diabetes animal model

(DAM). They were then subjected to experimental protocol and treatments for six

weeks as follows.Group I, normal rabbits fed on SAF only (Normal control); Group II,

DAM fed on SAF only also(Diabetic control); Group III, DAM fed on SAF +

cholestran (0.26 g/kg); Group IV, DAM fed on SAF with clove (12.5%); Group V,

DAM fed on SAF with fermented ginger (12.5%) and Group VI, DAM fed on SAF

with clove (12.5%) + fermented ginger (12.5%) supplements.Blood glucose was

assessedweekly, at the end of six weeks treatments, animals were anesthetized,blood

samples were collected via cardiac puncture and the serum was usedfor biochemical

assessments. The results revealed a significant(P<0.05) decrease in blood glucose level

at first and fourth week of treatment in all supplement treated groups,adecrease was

also noted at fifth week in the clove supplements treated group when compared to the

level in diabetic control group. There was also asignificant (P<0.05) increase in insulin

levels in all DAM groups when compared to normal control group, while leptin

vii


levelssignificantly decreased in clove supplement treated group when compared to the

diabetic control group. Triglycerol (TG)level significantly decreased in DAM group

treatedwith fermented ginger when compared to diabetic control.Thyroid hormones,

triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels significantly decreased in supplement

treated groups compared to diabetic control group.The oxidative stress makers,

superoxide dismutase (SOD)was significantly increased in DAM group treated on

clove + fermented ginger, while catalase (CAT) and (GPx)were significantly increased

in      the      supplement      treated     groups      compared      to     thediabetic      control

group.Alsomalondialdehyde (MDA) levelwas significantly decreased in DAM fed on

fermented ginger supplement and in the combined supplements(clove + fermented

ginger) treated groupscompared to the diabetic control group.Liver enzymes (ALT,

AST and ALP)activitieswere significantlydecreased in supplement treatedgroups

compared    to    their     levels     in    diabetic    control     group.    Serum     Na+      level

wassignificantlyincreased in DAM groups treated on clove (12.5%) and that treated

with fermented ginger (12.5%), compared to that of diabetic control group, while K+

level wassignificantlydecreased in all supplement treated groups. Bicarbonate ions

were increased in clove supplement treated group compared to that of diabetic control.

The findings of the present study shows that,supplementation of clove, fermented

ginger and their combinationto HFD-induced diabetic rabbits; have hypoglycaemic,

hypolipidaemic, antioxidant, hepato-protective and electrolytes normalization activity.

This indicate a pronounced ameliorative effectof the studied supplements onthe

metabolic derangement observed in HFD-induced diabetic rabbits.Hence, these

supplementsshould    be    considered,    amongvalued    dietary    supplementsintended

forrestoration/correction of altered physiological parametersin related condition.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the fastest-growing health problem in the World,

with a rising prevalence in low andmiddle-income countries than in high-income

countries over the past decade. In the present day, DM is reaching epidemic proportion

in some regions, as a consequence of interaction between change in life-style (lack of

exercise, unhealthy diet), obesity,overweight, and individuals‘ genetic make-up (World

Health Organization (WHO), 2016). DM is among the common chronicnon-

communicable disease in many populations at present, associated with risk factors that


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