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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Plates
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 7
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 7
1.4 JUSTIFICATION 8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 WATER 9
2.1.1 Functions of Water 11
2.1.2 Water Supply 15
2.1.3 Water Quality Parameters for Poultry 18
2.1.4 Potential Problems Associated With Water Contaminants in
2.1.5 The Use of Water to Combat Heat Stress 24
2.2 TEMPERATURE 24
2.2.1 Thermoregulation 28
2.2.2 Thermoneutral Zone 31
2.2.3 Heterothermy 32
2.3 AVIAN HEMATOLOGY 34
2.4 DYNAMICS OF BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IN POULTRY 36
2.5 VITAMIN C 37
2.5.1 Physiological Function of Ascorbic Acid in Mammals 38
2.5.2 Antioxidant 40
2.5.3 Pro-oxidant 41
2.5.4 Immune System 42
2.5.5 Antihistamine 42
2.6 WATER RESTRICTION / DEPRIVATION 42
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 51
3.1 EXPERIMENTAL SITE 51
3.2 EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION 51
3.2.1 Housing of birds 52
3.2.2 Grouping of quails 52
3.3 ANIMAL TREATMENT 53
3.4 METEOROLOGICAL DATA AND CLOACAL
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 53
3.5 SAMPLE COLLECTION 54
3.6 HEMATOLOGICAL ANALYSIS 54
3.7 BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS 55
3.8 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 56
4.0 RESULTS 57
4.1 CLOACAL TEMPERATURE 57
4.2 BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IN QUAILS 60
4.3 HAEMATOLOGY 65
4.4 SERUM BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS 67
4.5 HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES 69
5.0 DISCUSSION 75
5.1 CLOACAL TEMPERATURE 75
5.2 BODY WEIGHT 76
5.3 HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS 77
5.4 SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY 78
5.5 HISTOPATHOLOGY 81
5.6 CONCLUSION 82
5.7 RECOMMENDATIONS 82
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Water Consumption (ml of water per week per bird) in
various classes of poultry. 17
Table 2.2: Description of key temperature point 28
Table 4.1: Cloacal Temperature in control,
water deprived and water deprived and vitamin c
supplemented Quails. Mean±SD 59
Table 4.2: Pearson Correlation Coefficients
of the Body Weights in control,
water deprived and water deprived
and vitamin c supplemented Quails. 61
Table 4.3: Haematological Parameters in control,
water deprived and water deprived and vitamin c
supplemented Quails. Mean±SD 66
Table 4.4: Serum Biochemistry in control,
water deprived and water deprived and vitamin c
supplemented Quails. Mean±SD 68
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: The effect of changing ambient temperature on metabolic
rate in mice above and below the thermoneutral zone. 32
Figure 4.1: Correlation between Body Weights of Experimental
Quails in Group A and B 62
Figure 4.2: Correlation between Body Weights of Experimental
Quails in Group A and C 63
Figure 4.3: Correlation between Body Weights of Experimental
Quails in Group B and C 64
LIST OF PLATES
Plate 4.1: Photomicrograph of Liver from group A quails showing
normal hepatocytes (Blue arrow) with numerous cells
undergoing mitotic cell division (Red arrow) H&E x300 69
Plate 4.2: Photomicrograph of Liver from group B quails (-AA)
showing normal hepatocytes (Blue arrow) with numerous
necrotized hepatocytes (Dark spots) H&E x300 70
Plate 4.3: Photomicrograph of Liver from group C quails (+AA)
showing normal hepatocytes (Blue arrow) with moderately
necrotized hepatocytes (Dark spots) H&E x300 71
Plate 4.4: Photomicrograph of Kidney from group A quails
showing normal glomerulus (Red arrow) H&E x300 72
Plate 4.5: Photomicrograph of Kidney from group B quails (-AA)
showing congested glomerulus (Red arrow) H&E x300 73
Plate 4.6: Photomicrograph of Kidney from group C quails (+AA)
showing moderately congested glomerulus
(Red arrow) H&E x300 74
The study was conducted to determine the effect of water restriction and ascorbic acid supplementation on body weight, cloacal temperature and hematological parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during the early dry season (November to December). Temperature and relative humidity during the first, second and third weeks of the experiment were 37.7 0C and 19 %, 28.9 0C and 33 % and 25.5 0C and 78 % respectively. One hundred and fifty (n=150) three-week old male (30) and female (120). The birds were assigned to groups A, B and C comprising of fifty birds per group. Fifty percent water restriction was tested on groups B and C while group C was supplemented with 250mg Ascorbic acid (AA). The results of the study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) increase in body temperature in the group supplemented with vitamin C compared with the non-supplemented groups in the first week. While, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in body temperature between the control and the water deprived and also water deprived and supplemented with vitamin C was recorded in the second week. However, no corresponding increase in body temperature between all the groups was observed in the third week. There was also no significant difference between any of the groups in red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count and differential cell count. There was significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum glucose level in group C compared to the other groups. Significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea and creatinine were recorded in groups B and C, but there was no significant difference in total protein, albumin, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and uric acid. Histopathology of the liver and kidney tissues indicated varying level of necrosis in groups B and C. Base on the findings of this research, it is concluded that, the quail appeared not to be affected by water restriction and 250mg AA supplementation was not beneficial in quail subjected to water restriction. We recommend that other researches should be conducted at different season of the year using different doses of AA.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Japanese quail also known as corturnix quail, (Corturnix cortunix japonica) belongs to the kingdom animalia, phylum chordate, class Aves, order Galliformes, family phasianidae, sub-family perdicinae, genus corturnix and species japonica. The bird is a species of old world quail found in East Asia. They are migratory, species, breeding in Manchuria, southern Siberia, northern Japan and the Korean peninsula and dwell in grass land and cultivated field. Adults are approximately 20 centimeters in length. The bird is used mainly for table and egg production (Sam, 2010).
The Japanese quail, also known as Coturnix quail, pharaoh's quail, stubble quail and eastern quail differs considerably from the North American Bobwhite quail. The Bobwhite is larger than the Japanese quail, however the Coturnix produces larger eggs. The incubation time needed for fertile eggs is shorter (14-17 days) compared to Bobwhite quail eggs (23 days). Coturnix may start laying eggs as early as 6 weeks of age compared to 16 weeks for the Bobwhite (Sam, 2010).
Japanese quail have been widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Egyptians used to trap large quantities from their farm lands for meat. In Japan, these birds were kept as pets beginning in the eleventh century. By 1910 however, Japanese quail became popular in Japan for egg and meat production. They were introduced in the United States by bird fanciers around 1870 (Sam, 2010).
It has been reported that wild Coturnix lay eggs in small clutches of 5-12 eggs and incubate them naturally. Certain mutants of Japanese quail have been developed for their color of plumage, color of egg shell and body size (Sam, 2010).
Japanese quail can be sexed as early as three weeks of age, based on the feather color which is distinct for the male and female of the species. When matured, the Japanese males weigh in the range of 100-140 grams and they reach sexual maturity at 5 to 6 weeks of age. The plumage color on the throat and breast will be cinnamon or rusty brown. When males are sexually matured, a large glandular or bulbous structure appears above the cloacal opening. If this gland is pressed, it will produce a foamy secretion. Males generally live longer than females. Male crow and the sound has been described as "Ko-turn-neex". Adult Japanese quail females are generally
larger than the males and weigh in the range of 120-160 grams. Through proper selection, heavier birds can be produced for meat. The females can be easily differentiated from the males by characteristically black stippled feathers of the male. The feathers of the female quail are longer and more pointed than those of the male birds (Sam, 2010).
The female Japanese quial may start laying eggs as early as 35 days of age under proper conditions, laying approximately 200-300 eggs a year. Fertility in breeder flocks is high between 2-8 months of age although after that, it is considerably less. To obtain better fertility, a ratio of one male to one or two females should be considered when mating (Sam, 2010).
A Coturnix egg weighs approximately 10 grams, which is estimated to be about 8 percent of the female body weight. The basic shell color is white or buff with patches of brown, black or blue. Individual hens characteristically lay eggs with a particular color pattern, shape and size. Certain recessive strains of Japanese quail lay almost white-shelled eggs (Sam, 2010).
In recent times, a new genus of poultry, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was introduced into Nigeria by the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom to expand the poultry subsector and help supplement the domestic chicken production through meat and eggs (Edache et al., 2007;
Ane et al., 2009). The quails have unique characteristics and advantages over other species of poultry which include early attainment of sexual maturity, short generation interval making it possible to have many generations in a year (Anon, 1991), high rate of egg production between 200-300 eggs in 360 days and are very resistant to common epidemics of poultry (NRC, 1991). The quail are hardy birds that can adapt to many different environments (Haruna et al., 1997b). Their meat and eggs are renowned for their high quality protein, high biological value and low caloric content, making it a choice product for hypertensive patient (Haruna et al., 1997a, Olubamiwa et al., 1999).
Japanese quail is reared by many farmers in different parts of the country and accepted by the populace especially because of their prolific nature, less susceptibility to diseases, lean meat and low level of cholesterol in both meat and egg (Musa et al., 2007). Quail production is becoming fast growing in most parts of the country particularly in the northern part. Several factors affect the physiology of birds creating discomfort sometimes death. These factors include air temperature changes, high ambient temperature and relative humidity, and restricted access to food and water (Bedenova et al., 2006; Vecerek et al., 2006).
It has been observed that temperature and moisture of air are two major environmental factors controlling the heat-stress of livestock (Bouraovi et al., 2002 and ST-Pierre et al., 2003). Heat stress to different extent adversely affects egg size, laying percentage, mortality, body weight gain and egg shell durability (Franco-Jiminez and Beck, 2007).
Much research has shown that metabolic rate is alterable and may be affected by numerous variables such as old age in rats (Kleiber et al., 1961). So also metabolic rate per unit of body weight and surface area (Davis, 1937). Old age rats may have difficulties with temperature regulation and as a result have lower body temperature (Kleiber et al., 1961). Metabolic rate has been shown to increase in response to various other factors such as stress (Gournay et al., 1999).
Water form an integral part of body mass and it plays a role in maintaining homeostasis. Water plays a role in temperature regulation, acid-base status regulation, hydrolysis, energy generation, digestion and joint lubrication e.t.c. Water forms largest part of individual cells, as extracellular fluid (ECF), intacellular (ICF) and intracellular fluid (IF), enhancing transportation of materials and facilitating biochemical reactions within individual cells. Water deprivation affects metabolic processes as well as reproductive activities.
Water deprivation is a form of stress that affects normal physiological functions (Silanikove, 1994).
Water deprivation induces hypothermia (Herbert et al., 1998). Research on effect of dehydration and heat exposure in quail revealed reduced evaporation cooling resulting in hyperthermia (Itsaki-Gluklich, 1992). Water restriction results in increase oxygen consumption leading to an increase in metabolic rate (Mathew et al., 2006). Ascorbic acid has been used widely as a supplement in managing all forms of stress, such as negative effect of high environmental temperature. Report on Vitamin C supplementation revealed beneficial effect on growth rate, egg production, egg shell and thickness. Vitamin C and folic acid supplementation increase live weight and feed intake and improve feed efficiency in heat-stressed animals (Salim et al., 2002).
Dietary supplementation of Vitamin C and E was found to alleviate the adverse effect of heat stress in Shika Brown layer chickens transported during dry season (Joachim et al., 2009).
Co-administration of Vitamin E and C is found to be important in protecting and preserving erythrocyte membrane integrity, prolonging the life span of erythrocyte, improving PCV, Hb, erythrocyte count, regulating white cell
population and reducing haemolysis in animals subjected to heat stress in the Northern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria (Alhassan et al., 2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
I. Quail production is becoming a lucrative business in this part of the country with little information on their ability to withstand water deprivation.
II. High ambient temperature affects production in poultry and Ascorbic Acid (AA) has been used to alleviate such problems but there is little information on its role in water restricted quails in Sahel Savanna region of Nigeria
III. Scarcity of information on the effect of water restriction on
haematological parameters in quails
IV. Need for more information on body temperature of water restricted quail.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
I. To determine the effect of water restriction on body temperature in quails.
II. To establish if 50% water restriction affects body weight in quail raised in the Sahel Savanna region of Nigeria.
III. To determine the effect of water restriction on haematological
parameters of quail.
IV. To evaluate the effect of AA supplementation on body temperature, weight gain and haematological parameters of quails subjected to water restriction.
For quail farming to be commercially profitable in this hot (tropical) environment measures to alleviate the effects of high ambient temperatures on production of the birds must be found.
quail farming is gaining more recognition in this part of Nigeria with little information on effect of the intense environmental temperature on their survivability and reproduction.
This research will provide basic information on the physiologic response of quails to water restriction and hence will provide a guide on their water requirement and management in the Sahel Savanna region of Nothern Nigeria.
The research will also provide an insight on the normal physiology of Quail in Sokoto
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