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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is thought to cause oxidative injury in both humans and animals via the
formation of free radicals. Exposure to CPF at doses that did not result in overt clinical
symptoms has been reported among pesticide applicators and other farm workers thereby
constituting an important source of occupational hazards to these groups of individuals.
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) has been associated with cognitive and psychomotor impairments in both
humans and animal. The aim of this work was to evaluate the beneficial role of resveratrol on
chlorpyrifos-induced cognitive impairment in Swiss albino mice. Swiss albino mice were
divided into (6) six groups of five mice each (n=5). Group I served as the control and were
administered olive oil (2 ml/kg), group II received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 10g/L,
group III received resveratrol 30 mg/kg, group IV received chlorpyrifos (CPF) 3 mg/kg,
group V received CPF (3 mg/kg) after the oral administration of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) and
group VI received Vitamin E (Vit E) 100 mg/kg. All administrations were done by oral
gavage for 21 days. Cognitive function was assessed using Y-maze recognition memory test.
And oxidative stress was evaluated using oxidative biomarkers techniques. The results
obtained showed that resveratrol at dose 30 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) improved cognitive
impairment. The results showed that resveratrol at dose 30 mg/kg also significantly (p<0.05)
improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as catalase (CAT) when
compared with the control. Glutathione (GSH) significantly (p<0.05) increased in the treated
group when compared with the control and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration
significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the control. In conclusion, 30mg/kg
resveratrol suppressed memory impairment, decreased malondialdehyde levels, increased
catalase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels in our chlorpyrifos-
induced cognitive impairment mice model.
There has been a global increase in pesticides usage due to the compelling need to feed the
ever-increasing human and animal populations, and to reduce the incidence of food and
vector-borne diseases (Ambali, et al., 2012). These health and economic benefits of
pesticide usage are achieved not without simultaneous potential health risks and adverse
health outcomes in non-target species, including man (Abdollahi et al., 2004).
The adverse effect of some pesticides has necessitated legislation in most developed
countries against potentially damaging ones (Czarniewska et al., 2003). However, in most
developing nations, regulatory laws governing pesticide production and utilization are
almost completely lacking or where available these laws are poorly implemented thereby
having a far-reaching effect on the ecosystem (Otitoju and Onwurah, 2005).
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are one of the most widely used pesticides accounting
for about 50% of the global pesticide use (Ambali, et al., 2012). This may be of particular
concern given the widespread use of OP pesticide in household, agricultural, and
commercial environments worldwide (Terry et al., 2007). Human studies in agricultural
communities in developing countries have shown that cumulative exposure to OP is
associated with cognitive and psychomotor impairments (Kamel and Hoppin, 2004; Kamel
et al., 2007).
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a chlorinated OP insecticide that has enjoyed widespread use in
agricultural and domestic pest control (Steenland et al., 2000; Ambali et al., 2009). It is of
public health importance as CPF residues have been detected in poultry egg, meat, cow milk
and milk products (Rawat et al., 2003). CPF is thought to cause oxidative stress in both
humans and animals via the formation of free radicals (Terry et al., 2007). Exposure to CPF
at doses that did not result in overt clinical symptoms has been reported among pesticide
applicators and other farm workers (Farahat et al., 2010) thereby constituting an important
source of occupational hazards to these groups of individuals (Ray and Richards, 2001).
However, the body is endowed with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems to
counter the lipid peroxidative changes induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In
condition of enhanced free radicals formation (Ambali et al., 2010c, 2012), which can also
be referred to oxidative insult or stress by CPF these antioxidant systems could be
overwhelmed resulting in tissue damage. The brain, due to its biochemical and
physiological properties is especially sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which
disrupt its functions and structure (Drewa et al., 1998). This is witness in neurological
disorders such as Alzheimer’s dementia, affecting learning and memory aspect of brain
Learning is the acquisition of new information by the nervous system, resulting in changes
in behavior. While memory is the ability to store, process and recall learnt information
(Mangina and Sokolov, 2006).
Cognition is the ability to consciously carry out functions utilizing the human brain and
includes: visual perception, selective attention, logical reasoning, construction (sentences
for example) calculation, attention information processing), planning, problem-solving,
comprehension and memory (Warburton, 1995; Claxton, 2002).
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