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Paint is a suspension of finely divided pigment particles in a liquid composed of a binder (resin), a volatile solvent or water and additives that impart special characteristics. Spray painting is the process where a liquid coating substance, usually paint, is changed into a mist or aerosol, in order to apply a coating onto an object or surface. According to recent studies, occupational exposure to paint may cause an increased risk of several kinds of cancer, including lung, bladder and pancreas cancer, lymphatic and hematopoietic tumors, and risk of kidney injury. These findings are consistent with the 1989 report issued by the international Agency for Research on Cancer, which classified painting as an occupationally related cause of cancer and provided further evidence that the risk of certain cancers is increased by exposures in the paint manufacturing process.This work aimed to study the changes in renal function indices among spray painters with and to identify possible renal effects associated with organic solvents exposure among spray painters. The study is a multi-site cross sectional survey on the changes in renal function indices among workers in spray painting booths within Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. Out of 50 subjects, 30 were exposed and 20 non-exposed. These were assessed for changes in serum and urinary biomarkers of renal function.This investigation showed that exposure to spray paint fumes caused a significant increase in Na+ compared with the control (p = 0.034, p<0.05), significant decrease in potassium (p = 0.000, p<0.0001), a significant increase in creatinine (p= 0.000, p<0.0001), and no significant difference in chloride between the exposed and control (p>0.05).Occupational exposure to spray paints causes significant changes in renal function indices/biomarkers and further poses great dangers to other organs and systems of the body.
Keywords: Spray chemicals, Renal function, Spray painters, Renal indices/biomarkers, Creatinine.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - vii
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - viii
List of Tables - - - - - - - - x
List of Figures - - - - - - - - xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives - - - - - 3
1.3 Scope of Study - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significance of Study - - - - - - 4
1.5 Justification of Study - - - - - - 4
1.6 Limitation of Study - - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Overview of Renal Function - - - - - 6
2.2 Markers of Renal Function - - - - - 8
2.4 Properties of Spray Chemicals - - - - - 10
2.5 Effects of Spray Chemicals - - - - - 12
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Selection of Subjects - - - - - 16
3.2 Survey Methods - - - - - - - 16
3.3 Biochemical Estimation - - - - - - 17
3.4 Assessment of Renal Function - - - - - 18
RESULTS - - - - - - - - - 22
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Discussion - - - - - - - - 35
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 36
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 37
References - - - - - - - 38
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Socio- Demographics of the Respondents - - 22
Table 4.2: Distribution of Associated Symptoms - - 24
Table 4.3: - - - - - - - - - - 26
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. 1:A bar chart representing sodium concentration of the exposed and unexposed participants- - - - - - 27
Fig 2: A bar chart representing potassium concentration of the exposed and
unexposed participants - - - - - 29
Fig 3: Bar chart representing chlorine concentration of the exposed
and unexposed participants - - - - - 29
Fig 4: A bar chart representing creatinine concentration of exposed
and unexposed participants - - - - 30
Fig 5: A bar chart representing volume of urine of exposed and
unexposed participants - - - - - - 31
Fig 6: A bar chart representing hydrogen concentration (pH) of the
exposed and unexposed participants - - - 32
Fig 7: A bar chart representing specific gravity of exposed and
unexposed participants - - - - - 33
1.1 Background of Study
Spray painting is the process where a liquid coating substance, usually paint, is changed into a mist or aerosol, in order to apply a coating onto an object or surface. There are several different ways spray painting can be performed. Most spray painting is performed with the use of a spray gun. Spray guns use either a turbine or compressor to supply tiny particles of air. The objective of painting is to form a coating film on the surface of an object in order to protect the object and give a fine appearance (John Pfanstiehl, 1998). Painting may also have other special functions. There are various types of painting methods, and spray painting is currently used in many types of industrial painting. Spray painting consists of the painting operation itself followed by coated film drying. The paint used in the painting process is diluted with thinner, and solid portions in the paint form the coating film after the spraying operation. Annual amount of handled Class I Chemical Substances in paints and thinners is calculated based on the content of each chemical in paints and thinners, which should be obtained by MSDS and etc. In the painting operation, various types of painting methods are used according to the shape, size, quality, and quantity of the object(s) to be painted. The “transfer efficiency” differs, in other words, the ratio of the quantity of the coated film formed on the object to the quantity of the paint sludge generated from overspray differs according to the differences in these operational conditions. (Kimio Toda et al, 2012). In spray painting inside a coating booth, or temporary erected enclosed outdoor sites, most of the auxiliary solvent portions in the paints vaporize to air. The solid portions over-sprayed are collected in the coating booth circulating solution (water or oil), and separated as paint sludge. So, vaporization of solvents in spraying operation and coated film drying process makes air emissions from total painting processes. In some cases, a vent gas from coated film drying process is treated by deodorizing device. Paint sludge caused by overspray is either off-site transferred in waste, or incinerated. Residual paints and cleaning thinners are on-site or off-site recycled in some cases. Sometimes the (same) solvent is used to dilute paint and also to wash painting lines.
According to recent studies, occupational exposure to paint may cause an increased risk of several kinds of cancer, including lung, bladder and pancreas cancer, lymphatic and hematopoietic tumors, and risk of kidney injury. These findings are consistent with the 1989 report issued by the international Agency for Research on Cancer, which classified painting as an occupationally related cause of cancer and provided further evidence that the risk of certain cancers is increased by exposures in the paint manufacturing process (Dan Minchin et al,1996).
Thousands of chemical compounds are used in the manufacturing of paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals found in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of spray painters. (Hans-Joachim Streitberger et al, 2008).
Spray painters in automobile workshops uses automotive paints, water-based acrylic polyurethane enamel paint used on automobiles for both protection and decoration purposes. Paint application requires preparation and primer steps to ensure proper application. (Kimio Toda et al, 2012).
In developing countries like Nigeria, spray paint is manually applied and allowed to dry for weeks at room temperature. During this process, workers are exposed to organic solvents that may cause a variety of symptoms, including transient symptoms of the central nervous system such as euphoria, headache, and dizziness at low or moderate concentrations. Commonly used solvents include iso-propanol, toluene, xylene, solvent mixtures such as white spirits and the chlorinated solvents, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene. (F. Dick, 2006). Some of these solvents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTXs) are known for suspected carcinogens and need effective control. (A. Karimi et al, 2013). In particular, solvent related chronic encephalopathy (SRCE) has been described in several studies. Toxic effects of organic solvents were reported to harm liver, kidney and skin. Occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents has been evaluated in many activities, among which is paint spraying. (M. Vitali et al, 2006).
1.2 Aims and Objectives
This work aimed to study the changes in renal function indices among spray painters with the following objectives:
1) To identify possible renal effects associated with organic solvents exposure among spray painters.
2) To identify occupational and personal risk factors that may be associated with these health problems.
1.3 Scope of Study
This study is across-sectional survey of kidney status of spray painters in Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. It covers analysis of renal function indices and urinalysis, including questionnaire on the nature of health status of the spray painters while at work.
1.4 Significance of Study
Occupational Exposure to organic solvents in spray painting presently poses great health risks in the lives of workers across the nation, Nigeria. With the present increment in cost of living, workers which mostly are average citizens needs to be conscious of dangers of health exposure to certain chemicals at workplace. This awareness could help prevent possible outcome of health issues and crisis in the nearest future thus saving lives of workers that took drastic measures pertaining the results of tests carried out on their fellow workers, for this project work.
1.5 Justification of Study
Although there have been some reviews of the health effects of organic solvents, a quantitative review of mortality has not been published. In particular, the influence of solvent exposure on mortality from specific diseases is unclear. For example, some studies have suggested an association between exposure to organic solvents and an increased risk of renal disease or malignant diseases but others have not found an increase in overall mortality or in cancer or renal mortality among workers exposed to solvents. The potential reasons for the inconsistent findings from epidemiologic studies of occupational exposure to solvents are insufficient statistical power, as well as difference of exposure level/type and variability of study design, thus the need to carry out this cross-sectional survey on spray painters.
1.6 Limitation of Study
The lifestyle of workers, such as smoking and alcohol drinking could hinder accurate test results due to additional effects of alcohol and nicotine on the blood of subjects, thus limiting the certainty of exact root or cause of a particular ailment or renal diseases.
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