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ABSTRACT

This project is a construction of a module of a zener diode and how output voltage varies with increase in current in forwards bias using milliamp ere how output voltage varies with ailment using microampere. Experiment result the turn on voltage of the diode is 0.3v, the reverse sentences ammeter of MA with breakdown voltage 0.8v


CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

A diode is the simplest two terminal unilateral semi-conductor device. It allows the current to flow only in one direction and restrain the current that flows in the opposite direction. The two terminals of the diode are called as anode and the cathode (William Hany, 1919).

These diodes are manufacture by the semi-conductor materials germanium, silicon and selenium. Operation of diode can be classified in two ways, if it allows the current then it is forward biased otherwise it is reverse biased. Different types of diodes have different types such as light emitting diode, which convert the electrical energy into light energy. First production started in 1968. It undergoes electroluminescence process in which the holes and electrons are recombined to produce energy in the form of light in the forward bias condition (Mbakaan Celestine Teryange (2015).

Tunnel diode, it is used as high speed switch, of order nano-seconds. Varactor diode, laser diode, gold doped diodes, crystal diode and zener diode, it is a passive element works under the principle of zener breakdown. First produced by clearance zener in 1934. It also allows current in reverse direction when applied voltage reaches. The breakdown voltage, it is designed to prevent the other semi-conductor device from momentary voltage pulses. It acts as voltage regulator.

Diode can be used as a simple rectifier because of the different in its forward and reverse bias properties. This characteristic enables us to used diode to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). This action is called rectification (James, 1996).

A diode is the simplest of group device in electronic used to control current, the characteristic of the diode for most valuable. It is unidirectional of the diode that a voltage applied with a given polarity will cause flow of current with negligible resistance. (Parker, 1995).

1.1     AIM

·        The aim of this project is to produce a module that can be used to determine the voltage characteristic of zener diode.

1.2     OBJECTIVES

·        Voltage regulation in a circuit setup

·        To construct module that will serve as practical module for electronic students in the laboratory.

1.3     JUSTIFICATION

          The study enable me to develop an intensive knowledge on the use of zener diode in electronic and electrical appliance and how to provide a cheaper means of measuring the values of zener diode using an electrical techniques by technician and engineer in such a way that is can be find useful in an electronic laboratory.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE/APPLICATION

          Zener diode will serve for meter protection against damage from accidental application of excessive voltage and voltage regulators to the future students of Kaduna Polytechnic in electronics laboratory.

1.5     LIMITATION

          This work shall be limited to the construction of a simple circuit module built using local made source materials for which it will provide a simple set up for visual observation.


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