SIGNIFICANT IN PROVIDING USEFUL DATA FOR AUTHORITIES, GOVERNMENT, INDIVIDUALS AND NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

SIGNIFICANT IN PROVIDING USEFUL DATA FOR AUTHORITIES, GOVERNMENT, INDIVIDUALS AND NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS

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CHAPTER ONE

RESEARCH INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Population is the total number of people living in a geographical area at a particular time. Population growth refers to an increase in the number of people living in a country, state, city or town. Population growth is determined mainly by three factors; mortality {death rate}, fertility {birth rate} and migration. So it can be said that population growth is caused by high birth rate, low death rate and high rate of migration into an area i.e. immigration (Deka, 2009).

Population growth in the world has been observed to be very rapid over the years. At 1850, the total   population was estimated to be about 1.2billion, at 1974 it rose to about 3.89billion, by the year 1999; it had reached about 6billion people (Cunningham et al, 2007).

Presently, the human population growth amounts to around 75million annually, at a rate of 1.1% per year. The world population has grown from 1billion in 1800 to 7billion in 2012 and it is expected to keep growing. The United Nations (UN) predicted that the world population would be 8.4billion by mid-2030 and 9.7billion by mid-2050 (Tijani 2015).

Developing countries experience higher rapid population growth than the developed world. This is very evident in Africa where the average annual growth rate is 3.4% and 4.8% in 2011 and 2013 respectively.  According to UNICEF, by 2050, it is projected that one out of every three children born in the world will be an African (Aribisala 2013).

 Most developing countries have been able to control death rate but not birth rate which has resulted to a high population growth. Death rate has reduced as a result of improved health facilities, better personal hygiene, and better management of epidemics while birth rate keep increasing because of lack of education, superstition  and availability of health facilities. Also in developing countries children are valuable to the family for both future and present income, and also help with household chores. Children as young as 10years old tend domestic animals while younger siblings fetch water and gather firewood or help sell things in the market (Deka, 2009).

Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that is characterised by this rapid population growth. It had a population of about 140million during the 2006 census and is currently estimated to have a population of about 190million.Nigeria is currently the seventh most populated country in the world and is projected to surpass the United States by 2050 to become the third most populated country in the world with a population of 389million. By the end of the century, the U.N. projects Nigeria’s population would be between 900million and 1billion, nearing that of China which would be the second populous country after India at that time. The reason for this is because Nigeria’s population would continue to grow geometrically.   The highest increase in new births in the world between now and 2050 is expected to occur in Nigeria (Tijani, 2015).

In Nigeria, the population growth is mainly centred on the urban areas; this is mainly as a result of rural-urban migration. According to UN 62.66 million people or 43% of the population live in urban areas (UN, 2007). Rural residents move to urban centres in search of employment, education, basic amenities and better standard of living among others.

This increasingly movement of people to the urban areas has led to high pressure on facilities and infrastructures which includes electricity, health facilities, schools, pipe borne water and housing. However this rapidly rising population growth has not been matched by standard or improved infrastructures. One of the most outstanding of this pressure on infrastructures can be seen in housing demand in urban centres.

Housing is one of the basic necessities of man; it plays an important role in the social, mental and psychological wellbeing of man (Femi & Khan 2014).

Nigeria national housing policy defines housing as the process of providing functional shelter in a proper neighbourhood supported by sustainable maintenance of the built environment for the day to day living and activities of individual and families within the community (Olofinji, 2015).

Housing Demand can be explained as the willingness and ability of a housing consumer to pay for a particular dwelling depending upon such customer’s incomes, house type, location preferences and local price (Welsh 2002). Housing is the essential building block of urban development and community life, it is known to be a major component of creating stable and healthy communities, and it is often the largest single category of household expense. In the traditional African setting, housing is one of the greatly treasured material possessions because of the functions it performs in the tradition which is protecting family cohesion and values, taking care of the aged through extended family system, and the protection of the ancestral values (Olofinji, 2015).

 Over the years urban housing demand has been a problem faced in almost every urban centre in Nigeria. It has been estimated that about 85% of the urban population live in single rooms, often with 8-12 persons per room. The available housing mostly is not enough or too expensive for an average Nigerian citizen. This gave rise to the review of the 1991 housing policy. The 1991 housing policy was launched by the then military government of Gen. Ibrahim Babangida with a slogan “Housing for all by the year 2000”. The goal was to ensure that all Nigerians had access to decent housing at affordable cost before the end of the year 2000. The failure of the 1991 policy led to a review of the policy in the 2006 under the civilian government of President Obasanjo. The 2006 policy was aimed at removing impediments to the realization of housing goal of the nation. The goal of the policy is to ensure that Nigerians own or have access to decent, safe and healthy housing accommodation at an affordable cost. The 2006 housing policy also was not achieved which led to another policy in 2012 under the government of President Goodluck Jonathan. The new policy promised Nigerians “real mass housing” which the country has been dreaming of. The new policy emphasized the provision of mass housings that will provide houses for all Nigerians of all financial levels. It also introduced the concept of social housing stating that the government hoped to provide housing for even the “poorest of the poor” by making houses that are not for luxury but that will ensure that every Nigerian gets a house. Today the struggle for adequate housing especially in urban areas is still a major problem in the country (Emiedafe, 2015).

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM                        

Housing problems abound in Nigeria both in rural areas and urban centres. The problem in the rural areas has to do with qualitative housing while the problem in the urban centre is quantitative in nature. Housing problems in the rural areas are connected with qualitative deficiencies like place, degree of goodness and the value of the house (Ibimilua & Ibitoye, 2015).

High rate of urbanization, ever-increasing population of urban dwellers in conjunction with the increasing social expectations of the people are all responsible for housing problems in Nigeria. Ibimilua and Ibimilua (2011) identified the problems of urbanization as inadequate housing, unplanned development, improper maintenance of existing structures, aging, absence of social infrastructure, waste management menace, crime, and health hazard. Additionally, the houses in the urban core areas are characterized by inadequate infrastructural facilities, poor ventilation, non-availability of in-built toilet and kitchen, as well as poor refuse disposal system. Other problems that are associated with urban housing are lack of effective planning, development of shanty towns, and availability of dilapidated houses. Urban housing problems include homelessness slum dwelling, squatting and overcrowding.

The rapid expansion of urban population has brings with it many problems associated with the difficulties of providing basic infrastructure such as; electricity, inter-urban and intra-urban transportation and communication services and the problem of providing medical, educational and recreation facilities. Perhaps the most outstanding of all the problems is that of providing adequate housing facilities for the increasing urban population. There is a gap between need for housing and the capacity to acquire the desired housing type, resulting in an effective demand crisis for affordable housing in the country. (Sanusi, et al., 2010)

There is a great need for adequate housing in Nigerian towns, Kakuri of Kaduna south local government is one of these towns. Rapid urban population as explained in the background of the study above has led to an increasing demand for housing that cannot be met by the existing housing system.

Kakuri’s rapid population growth could be connected to the presence of the Brewery industry, the Kaduna South Local Government Secretariat, National Youth Service Corp’s Secretariat and other small factories. Where the economy growth lags behind population growth, most people are unable to afford basic housing. This means that without intervention from the government or private bodies that can improve housing supply or contain migration to the town, the housing situation would worsen in coming years (Sanusi, et al., 2010).

Having known this fact, this research hopes to answer the following questions;

1.      What are the effects of population growth on housing in Kakuri?

2.      To what extent is there shortage of housing in Kakuri?

3.      How can this rapidly growing population be controlled?

1.3 AIM & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Aim: the main aim of this study is to find out the effect of rapid population growth on urban housing demand in Kaduna South LGA using Kakuri as a case study and provide possible solutions.

Objectives: this study hopes to achieve the following objectives:

1.      To examine the problem of urban housing in Kakuri.

2.      To identify the effect of population growth on housing demand in Kakuri.

3.      To identify the factors affecting population growth in Kakuri.

4.      To provide solutions on how to control population growth and improve housing demand.

5.      To predict housing demand considering population growth in the area.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0 – Maternal mortality has no significant effect in Chikun Local Government Area.

H1– Maternal mortality has significant effect in Chikun Local Government Area.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research is significant in providing useful data for authorities, government, individuals and non-government organisations which could be used for planning. It could also serve as a guide to the authorities in charge of providing housing on how to reduce housing problems in the study area.

It would also be a basis for further research that will be carried out on the topic or related topics in the near future.

1.6 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

1.6.1 Location

Kaduna South Local Government Area is in Kaduna State as shown in Fig 1 and 2. Kaduna South Local Government Area is located at latitude N7 0 44’ 28” North of the equator and longitude 100 31′ 23″ East of the Greenwich meridian. It is bounded in the North and North-East by Kaduna North LGA, in the North-West by Igabi LGA, in the South by Chikun LGA. Its headquarters is in the town of Makera. 

Kakuri is located between latitude 100 28’ 0” N and longitude 70 25’ 0” E, it is bounded by Nassarawa to the north, Trikania to the west, Barnawa to the east and Gonigora to the south.

1.6.2   Climate

The most important factor affecting climate in the study area is precipitation, temperature and relative humidity.

According to the Koppen’s classification of climate, Kaduna South LGA belongs to tropical savannah climate or tropical wet and dry climate (Aw), which is marked by distinct wet and dry season (Aboh, 2009).

The rainy season usually starts from May till September with the peak in July and August but sometimes comes early in April and it lasts for about six to seven months. The mean annual rainfall values ranges from 1397-1551mm (Saleh, 2015).

The mean daily temperature in the area can be as high as 34oC between months of March and May and could be as low as 20oC from December to January. This low temperature is intensified by humidity due to the dry harmattan wind (Aboh, 2009).

   

Figure 1: MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING KADUNA STATE

Source: Ministry of Land and Survey, 2017

Figure 2: MAP OF KADUNA STATE SHOWING KADUNA SOUTH L.G.A

Source: Ministry of Land and Survey, 2017

Figure 3: MAP SHOWING KAKURI

Source: Ministry of Land and Survey, 2017

1.6.3 Soil

The soils of Kaduna south Local Government are characterized predominantly by tropical ferruginous soil, being developed over the basement complex. They are the zonal soils of unconsolidated texture with shallow profile resistant to weathering, lateritic in origin and similar to other Northern plains with low organic matter content of about 1-2%. This is attributed to sparse vegetation cover and poor processes of humification. These soils are relatively difficult to work upon using  crude implement because it tend to be water-logged with heavy rain and due to little percolation, it dries out and crack during the dry season. The soils are somehow susceptible to erosion, loosing nutrient and slightly acidic with PH of 5 - 6, lost of iron oxide (fe203), and Aluminum oxides (Al203). Sandy loamed, sandy clayed texture and high leaching capacity are also characteristic of the soils in this area. There is however, the presence of hydromorphic (fadama) soil along river banks with annual deposition of alluvial materials which makes the soil more fertile for market gardening activities and dry season farming (irrigation). A little score of farmer’s practice irrigation farming along the river banks although irrigation farming is significant in Kaduna south. In the past, soil fertility level in the area was maintained through the method of long fallow period, but owing to the rapidly increasing population in the area, there has been a decline in the fallow period, fertilizers are now increasingly used to supplement lost soil nutrients (Saleh, 2015).

1.6.4 Population Composition

Kaduna South Local Government Area has an area of 59km square, with an estimated population of 402,731 people according to the 2006 census. It had a population of 391,575 according to the 1991 census; the area experienced a tremendous population increase in May 1992 and late 2002 during and after the religious crisis. So many people moved from different parts of the state to the southern part of the state because the state was segregated into two with most of the Christians in the South and Muslims in the North.

 The population has 204,969 males and 197, 762 females or 50.9% males and 49.1% females. 166,975 are aged between 0-14years, 226,952 are aged between 15-64 years and 8,804 are aged 65years and above (NPC 2006).

1.6.5 Economic Activities

The economic activities that take place in Kaduna South Local Government are the primary, secondary and tertiary activities.

The primary activities include urban farming which is usually peasant and fishing. The main crops grown are maize, guinea corn, millet, tomatoes, onions pepper, vegetables and economic trees such as mango, guava, and oranges.

The secondary activities which have to do with converting raw materials to finish goods include the industries, and this includes the Nigerian Breweries, Peugeot Automobile and Kaduna Textile.

The tertiary activities include service providers such as the healthcare centres, the administrative offices which includes the Kaduna South Local Government secretariat and NYSC Secretariat, Banks which includes First Bank, Zenith Bank, Unity Bank and United Bank of Africa, Hotels which include Access International Hotel, Markets and Fuel Stations (Saleh, 2015).

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The major setback or limitation encountered in the course of the study was that some of the correspondents were reluctant to give out information needed; some refused to fill the questionnaire while others filled it half way. Also some were willing to fill the questionnaire but they were not literates which made filling it impossible for them. Another problem was that the boundary between streets are not properly indicated which makes it difficult to know the extent of a particular street.





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