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This research is a critical examination of Kant’s Noumenal Causality. The necessity of this work manifest as to tackle the problem of the “causational reality” and on the basis of Kant’s discussion of the nature of Noumenal Causality, determine whether in some sense there can be a noumenal causality. That is to say, whether one can talk about a noumenal cause without contradiction. Patronising the philosophical tools of analysis, hermeneutics and criticisms, the work observed that “causation” by definition refers to the situation in which something, x, follows upon something Y in accordance with a rule. Noumena on the other hand are described as thing-in-itself (Ding an Sich) wholly outside the conditions of time and wholly outside any series of experiences. It is observed in the work that Kant argues that the whole concept of causality is directly dependant of the conditions of time, which makes “Noumenal Causality “appear as being self contradictory. This research seeks to capture the meaningfulness of Kant’s Noumenal Causality and its significance as well as it’s interpretations so as to determine whether it is self-contradictory or not In order to achieve this objective, the work briefly share the biography of Kant, discusses Kant’s metaphysics and it presents a conceptual clarification of Noumena and Causality, Freedom and Determinism. It further shows true relationship between the allegory of the cave and Kant’s Noumenal Causality. It identifies the distinctions between Noumena and Phenomena. The work concludes on the note that Noumenal Causality is a line of reasoning that views human action in the phenomenal world as determined by laws of nature and also at the same time as noumenal beings whose actions are freely willed by them as noumenal agents.
1.1 Background of the Study
The structural setting of the cosmos is one of the most perplexing phenomena that create thought on the human mind. The understanding of an occurring event leading to another event, or that of an occurring event generating as a result of an already existing or occurring event, makes the beginning of the thoughts of causation in the universe.
Idang shares in this line of thought, in his work “Philosophy An Outline For Beginners”, he defines philosophy as that which “begins with wonder about the world, about man and his origin, about the society and in fact about everything” (2). Causation happens to be one of the wonders in the universe. Gregory pence, in Philosophical Dictionary of Common Terms defines causation “as one of the main philosophical problems explained in the area of metaphysics, it is the relationship between two events where, when one occurs’ the other always follows and where the first makes the latter occur (9). Kant’s Noumenal causality springs out from Hume’s notion of causality, Kant wrote in response to Hume’s causality.
Consequently, the work is as a result of the interest in understanding this part of the cosmos’ wonders “causality”, it becomes more interesting an area to research on having the knowledge that the notion of causes and effect brings about the strength in the foundations of science. Hume in support of this view opines that “To undermine the notion that every event has a cause would shatter the foundations of science (Lawhead, 315).
This work is an exposition of Kant’s view on Noumenal causality, it’s a work which critically reflects on the Kantian concept of Noumena and it contrasting notion the Phenomena.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The notion of causality has been one of the interesting topics raised in the discipline. The notion of causation is simply put, as a philosophical problem explained in the area of metaphysics, it is the relationship between two events where one occurs, the other always follows, and where the first makes the latter occurs. Interestingly, the issue of causes and effect is of importance to the setting of the world. Hence, Kant in his” Critique of Pure Reason” discussed “causation” and this forms the interest of the research. It is for the same reason that David Hume states that “to undermine the notion that every event must have a cause would shatter the foundation of science (Lawhead, 315). This makes the work of utmost importance.
Consequently, “A Critical Examination of Kant’s Noumenal Causality” which is the focus of this research; rises as a result of the great attainment of the understanding of what the nature of causes and that of effect is.
i. What are causes?
ii. What are effects?
iii. How do causes interact with their effect?
Other issues to be raised addressed during the research work includes:
i. An attempt to understanding Phenomena and Noumena.
ii. Freedom, determinism and the natural event
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine:
i. The possibility of causality through freedom.
ii. To critically examine the notion of Noumenal causality as intended by Immanuel Kant.
iii. Render a critic of Kant’s Noumenal causation.
iv. To acquire a detailed knowledge of Noumenal causation.
1.4 Significance of the Study
i. This research attempts on exposing to open-view, the meaningfulness inclusive in Kant’s notion of Noumenal Causality in light of his doctrine of the third antinomy.
ii. The research shows the distinction between Noumena and phenomena
iii. The research contribute to the attainment of knowledge
iv. Kant’s Noumenal Causality enables us to understand things as they are in themselves and things as they are outside of themselves.
1.5 Justification of the Study
This research presents Immanuel Kant, who develops the Noumenal Causality because he was concerned with the reality of freedom. He stresses the fact that freedom is simply a transcendental idea, which is thought by reason. This work enquired into Kant’s development of the Noumenal Causality possible meanings, antinomies and significance. Hence, this work is researchable.
1.6 Methods of the Study
This study is expository in its explanation of Kant’s Noumenal Causality ,in its explanation of Kant’s Noumenal Causality, in achieving this, it makes use of the tool of critical analysis, it further makes use of secondary sources in Kantian Metaphysics since it original work are written in German.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is not intended to explore all aspects of Kant’s philosophy, rather it focuses on his concept of causality, which forms the core of his metaphysics, especially as expressed in his work “The Critique Of Pure Reason”.
1.8 Clarifications of Key Terms.
A better understanding of any work is gotten through the explication of the terms encountered in the course of the research. Hence, this work will attempts at clarifying certain ambiguous words used in this work.
According to Gregory Pence, Noumena is defined as a part of reality that is not revealed by direct sensory experience. The underlying stuff beneath or beyond phenomena and hence a term in dualistic metaphysics (Dictionary Of Common Philosophical terms,38).
Kant in his “Critique of Pure Reason’ categorizes Noumena into two:positive and negative. To Kant,”a thing so far as it not an object of our sensible intuition, namely,the intellectual, which is not that which we possess, and of which we cannot comprehend positive sense of the term”(268).
Naturally, if one is asked what freedom is, the reply in its simplest form would be that freedom is the living condition devoid rules and regulations that one must adhere to. A living conditions where one acts out of one’s will.
Etim quotes Gleen’s definition of freedom as that which “refers primarily to a condition characterized by the absence of coercion or constrain imposed by another person”(51). To corroborates Gleen’s point of view, Etim views freedom as “a deliberate act of the will; freedom can be objectively understood as a kind of human choice in meaning and intention(51)
Determinism is a belief that each and every event has a cause and that for all necessary and sufficient antecedent for a particular event existed again, it would be impossible for that event not to occur, this concept is traditionally associated with the problem of freedom.
The position known as hard determinism maintains that all behaviours is invariably and beyond the control and responsibility of any individual, so that in effect, freewill and moral choice do not exist. However, soft determinism, a form of compatibilism maintain that while there is a cause for all action that stem from the character or will of the agent, this preserving the notion of moral responsibility (Dictionary of common philosophical terms,14).
A phenomena is anything which manifest itself. The term came into its modern philosophical usage through Immanuel Kant, who contrasted it with Noumenon. Phenomena constitute the world as we experience it, as opposed to the world as it exists independently of our experiences (The thing-in-itself “das Ding an sich”). Kant in his work states phenomena to be “certain objects appearances, sensible entities (phenomena).” (266) It further states that” Appearance, so far as they are thought as object according to the unity of the categories, are called phenomena” (265).Phenomena are things existing in experience.
Causality holds that there is no action without a cause, every event as a cause and the cause is always an agent or some agents utilizing some forces. It is the relationship between two events where when one occurs, the other always follows and where the first makes the latter occur (Dictionary Of Common Philosophical terms, 9).
1.9 Organization of the Work
The research work contains four chapters. Chapter one focused on the general introduction of the work, making use of “Background of the study, statement of research problem, objective of the study, significance of study, justification of the study, method of the study, scope of the study, clarification of key terms and the organization of the work. Chapter two deals with the Review of Related Literature. Chapter three contains the body of work which deals with Kant’s Noumenal Causality. Chapter four deals with the summary and conclusion of the work, followed by the world cited.
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