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This study is on the attitude of undergraduate students toward HIV voluntary counseling and testing. The total population for the study is 200 students of university of Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up final year students, year 4 students, year 3 students and year 2 students were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the study
The Joint United Nations program on HIV/AIDS estimates that currently, there are 39.4 million people living with HIV worldwide, with 4.9 million new cases of HIV infection in the year and 3.1 million deaths due to .AIDS. Of the approximately 40 million people afflicted with HIV/AIDS worldwide, the top three locations are in nations of sub-Saharan Africa, with 25.4 million, cases, .followed by 9.6 million combined cases in nations of Asia Eastern Europe and 1 million cases in North America. A joint report on the AIDS pandemic by .UNAIDS and the WHO pointed to steep increases in HIV infections in East Asia Eastern Europe and Central Asia between 2002-2004. Many World health bodies since the discovery of HIV / AIDS ·have been reporting frightening increases in the prevalence rates - the virus and syndrome, particularly between adolescent and youths. Half of the newly HIV infected persons are about 15,000. 6,000 per day and they are aged 15-,29 largely adolescents under which undergraduates' falls. This alarming rate of spread of HIV/ AIDS also includes Nigeria, where about 5.4% of adults (ages 15-49) are living with HIV / AIDS. University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria of about 35,000 populations with 100 different cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Student life in University of Lagos is very active and dynamic and since these students are youths therefore, it is a common thing to find them with common interests which can lead to best of times or worst of times or a time of marvelous new birth as a result of the friendship tie that are formed between boys and girls and that are often centered around sex. HIV voluntary testing is a process whereby an individual willingly accept to go for a HIV test and before the test is conducted, he or she is counseled, the counseling is aimed at enabling the client to cope with stress and take personal decision relating to HIV/AIDS. The counseling is provided to prevent further transmission of HIV and provide psychosocial support to those infected. After the counseling, HIV antibody test is conducted to identify the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood and afterwards a ·post - test counseling is carried out which will depend on the test result. Research evidence show that undergraduate attitude towards HIV voluntary testing is a very important factor in knowing the HIV status of the population of a nation like Nigeria who is named among those countries where levels of knowledge of safe sex and HIV remain low. For instance, student who cultivate negative attitude towards voluntary testing are pure evidence that their perception about HIV/AIDS IS very poor therefore, there is the need for intense advocacy for voluntary counseling and testing and all undergraduates should endeavor to willingly go for voluntary HIV· test which will held in curbing the increasing number of HIV transmission. In the present circumstance. of this scourge of HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing is paramount and this is urgently needed, especially by the undergraduates who are seen as a vulnerable group and who are constantly influenced by the environment in which they live, particularly among their peers. Hence; there is the need for this research work to determine the attitude of undergraduates of the University of Lagos towards HIV voluntary testing.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue of increasing' number of HIV infections and AIDS has become a global debate, since the discovery of this killer virus reports have shown' the frightening increase in the prevalence rates of the virus and. syndrome, particularly among adolescent and youths. This alarming rate of spread of HIV infections and AIDS also includes country like Nigeria where 5.4% of adults (ages 15-49) are living with the HIV infection and AIDS.
Therefore, the study is conceived to gain insight into the attitude of undergraduates of University of Lagos towards HIV voluntary testing. It will try to find answers to the following:
1. Will students of University of Lagos be knowledgeable able voluntary counseling and testing?
2. Will students of University of Lagos consider VCT as useful in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS?
3. Will students of University of Lagos know where to access VCT Centres?
4. Will students of University of Lagos know their HIV status?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
1. To ascertain whether student of University of Lagos want to go for HIV voluntary test
2. To ascertain the attitude of undergraduate students toward HIV voluntary counseling and testing
3. To ascertain whether student. of University of Lagos know their HIV status
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: Students in University of- Lagos will not be knowledgeable about HIV Voluntary Counseling and testing.
H1 Students in University of- Lagos will be knowledgeable about HIV Voluntary Counseling and testing.
H02: Students in University of Lagos will not know their HIV status.
H2: Students in University of Lagos will know their HIV status.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since knowledge breeds action and informed response then, there is the need to inform undergraduates of University of Lagos the need for HIV voluntary testing which will make them to know their HIV status and when this is known they are at the epicenter of preventing the progression of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The result of this research will provide undergraduates the opportunities of awareness on safer options, maintain safer sexual and drug- related behaviours
It will also provide an opportunity to further reduce the spread, burden and stigma of HIV/AIDS.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the attitude of undergraduate students toward HIV voluntary counseling and testing. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.1 DEFINITION OF TERMS
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
VIRUS: The smallest of the microorganisms that causes diseases.
ENDEMIC: An endemic disease is always present in a particular place.
PREVALENT: Common at a particular time or in a particular place
PANDEMIC: A disease that affects the population of a large area.
IMMUNE SYSTEM: The system by which your body protects itself against disease.
INTRAVENOUS: An injection that is done into a vein.
CIRCUMCISION: The act of cutting off the skin at the end of the penis (male] the Clitoris (female).
SCARIFICATION: The making of small cuts on an area of skin using a sharp knife.
VCT: Voluntary Counseling and Testing.
SPECIFICITY: Of a HIV test is the percentage of HIV negative cases that are correctly identified as negative by the test.
SENSITIVITY: Of a HIV test is the percentage of HIV positive cases that are correctly identified as positive by the test.
FHI: Family Health International
SWAAN:- Society for Women And Aids In Africa Nigeria Chapter.
STIs: Sexual Transmitted Infections
PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS
ARV:- Antiretroviral Drug
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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