Get the complete project »
- The Complete Research Material is averagely 52 pages long and it is in Ms Word Format, it has 1-5 Chapters.
- Major Attributes are Abstract, All Chapters, Figures, Appendix, References.
- Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE.
- Full Access Fee: ₦4,000
This project work is on the bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal.
The charcoal used for this work was made from pieces of animal bone by carbonization method. It was then activated into two different samples. Firstly, the basic sample was activated using anaphoric acid (H2 s04) while the other was activated by just heating as a control for the experiment; both at a constant temperature of 5000c and approximate time of 2hours.
They were both size reduced into fines and sieved into particle 3ye of 150um portion of the crude palm oil was degummed and neutralized for bleaching. Each interval of bleaching with both the acid activated and the ordinary activated charcoal was 8mins and temperature of 1500c over a hot plate, and subsequent filtration of the solution.
A spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance of the oils (crude and bleached) at selected wave length of 480Um. This was converted as the degree of colour reduction expressed in percentages.
Results obtained showed that optimum quantity of the charcoal for bleaching is 5% by weight, of the oil, which gives a percentage colour reduction as 97. 14% for the acid activated and 93.57% for the calcinated sample.
Also, the characterization of both the original oil and the bleaching oil showed that the later has appreciable properties. Hence colour reduction was observable by naked eyes.
Palm oil is one of the various types of vegetable oils, belonging to the group called liquids, because of its fatty acids content.
The majority of the fats contains some colouring matter either as a natural constituent or discoloration produced during the processing. Natural pigments present in vegetable oils are mainly the carotenoid, giving yellow and red colours, and the chlorophylls which give green colours. Colour deterioration can also take place during the extraction process, especially in the local method of extraction used in the most parts of the Eastern region in Nigeria.
Removal or reduction of colours and other components, otherwise called ‘Bleaching” is necessary not only because a pale-coloured fat has an appeal of ‘purity’ but also because the colours of the fat can influence the appearance of prepared food and even more importantly, the pigment present may affect the flavour and stability of the fats and food made from it.
The decolouration (bleaching) could be achieved by chemical treatment, heat treatment and adsorption methods. The most effective and widely used being the later. Thus, in this research project, bleaching by adsorption is carred out using an “Activated charcoal” (an adsorbent), a kind of active carbon, to substitute the use of local clays and the imported ‘Fuller’s Earth – in Palm Oil bleaching, which are rather expensive.
The charcoal can be produced from different sources as from, coal, wood, bone, coconut shell, etc. It would be verified the most suitable form and type of charcoal for effective bleaching and the most favourable condition at which the “activated charcoal could be used, which in them affects the bleach ability’ of the Palm oil itself.
The objective / aim of this research project is to verify the effectiveness of ‘Activated charcoal’ in the bleaching of palm oil. It will also expose the improvement in the use of local raw material (charcoal) in a chemical process (bleaching), in lien of the imported fuller’s Earth or other adsorbents which more expensive.
1.3 SCORE OF THE STUDY
Basically, this, study dwells on the colours reduction of Palm oil, using an Activated charcoal as an adsorbent (bleaching agent). The major raw materials, Palm oil and charcoal were locally sourced, and information as regards the process were obtained form the literary and other resourceful materials (texts) that treats ‘Adsorption’ as a chemical process.
You either get what you want or your money back. T&C Apply
You can find more project topics easily, just search
SIMILAR NURSING FINAL YEAR PROJECT RESEARCH TOPICS
1. LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND PREVENTION OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ANANTIGHA CALABAR SOUTH LGA OF CROSS RIVER STATE» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of study Anemia is defined as the condition in which there is decreased level of hemoglobin (Hb) or red blood cell...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO HEPATITIS B Viral hepatitis is a disease as old as the history of Medicine. Hepatitis was described in th...Continue Reading »
3. UTILIZATION OF DONABEDIAN MODEL IN EVALUATION OF MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTHCARE QUALITY SERVICE IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN ILE-IFE» ABSTRACT Improving the quality of obstetric, neonatal and child care in facilities has been identified as a neglected and essential approach to reduci...Continue Reading »
» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1.1. Background Nursing care plan is a set of actions the nurses use to implement, resolve patients needs and ...Continue Reading »
5. PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE ATTAINING GWAMNANWA GENERAL HOSPITAL KADUNA SOUTH, KADUNA STATE» ABSTRACT Malnutrition is a public health problem in developing countries and an underlying factor in one third of 6.6 million global under five deaths...Continue Reading »
6. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER–TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMCTC) SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING CLINIC AT CHIROMA ...» CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has a devastating eff...Continue Reading »
7. EFFECT OF A NURSE-LED TRAINING PROGRAMME ON PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION AND TREATMENT AMONG NURSES IN TWO TEACHING HOSPITALS IN OGUN STAT...» ABSTRACT Pressure ulcer refers to lesion on the skin due to persistent pressure, friction or moisture leading to skin and tissue destruction. It is as...Continue Reading »
8. Measures utilized for prevention of nosocomial infection in the labour ward of university of calabar teaching hospital (ucth), calabar» MEASURES UTILIZED FOR PREVENTION OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN THE LABOUR WARD OF UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH), CALABARCHAPTER ONEINTRO...Continue Reading »
» ABSTRACT The project work was based on managing waste in the hospitality industry. The hospitality industry is a vast scope of activities and operatio...Continue Reading »
10. ASSESSMENT OFTHE SERVICE QUALITY OF FOCUSED ANTENATAL CARE AT HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN BAUCHI STATE» ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the Service quality of focused antenatal care at health care facilities in Bauchi State. Five research ob...Continue Reading »