# Design and Implementation of Medical Experts System for Malaria and Typhoid Diagnosis

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EXPERT SYSTEM An expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge like an expert, and not by following the procedure of a developer like in conventional system. To run an expert system, the engine reasons about the knowledge base like human. Figure 1.0 shows the architecture of Fuzzy expert system for Malaria diagnosis.   ALGORITHM OF THE FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MALARIA DIAGNOSIS
1. Step Input signs and symptoms of patient complaint into the system. Where m = number of signs and symptoms.
2. Step Search the knowledge-base for the disease, which has the signs and Symptoms identified.
3. Step Get the weighing factors (wf) (the associated degree of intensity) wf  = 1, 2, 3, 4 Where  1 = low, 2 = average, 3 = high, 4 = Very high.
4. Step Apply fuzzy rules.
5. Step Map fuzzy inputs into their respective weighing factors to determine their degree of membership.
6. Step Determine the rule base evaluating (non-minimum values).
7. Step Determine the firing (conclusion) strength of the rules R.
8. Step Calculate the degree of truth R, of each rules by evaluating the nonzero Minimum value.
9. Step Compute the intensity of the disease.
10. Step Output fuzzy diagnosis.
KNOWLEDGE BASE Knowledge is a key factor in the performance of intelligent systems. Knowledge base is a special kind of database for knowledge management which provides a means for information to be collected, organized, shared, searched and utilized. In another term, the knowledge base acts as a repository for information in the expert system. The knowledge base of the fuzzy expert system for the diagnosis of malaria is composed of structured information. The structured knowledge is concerned with facts, rules and events of tropical disease and fuzzy rules which will be used to determine the rate of the disease.

MALARIA SYMPTOMS In this work the following malaria symptoms were considered;
• Fever,
• Nausea,
• Vomiting,
• Enlarge liver,
• Joint pain,
• Dizziness,
• Abdominal pain
• Jaundice
• Anemia
• Body weakness
high headache, this is gotten as 3/4 =0.75 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES By linguistic variables we mean variables whose values are words or sentence in a natural or artificial language. The linguistic variables used in this work are,
Low, Average, High and Very High. By using these linguistic variables, fuzzy IF THEN RULES which are the main output of the fuzzy system would be set up and generally presented in the form of:
IF x is a THEN y is b.
Table 1.0 shows ranges of Fuzzy value In the development of fuzzy expert systems, we construct the ranges of fuzzy value as seen in table 1.0,
then we construct the fuzzy rules structure for the diagnosis of malaria as shown in
Table 2.0
An interpretation of the above rules 001 to 020 are as follows
001: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and Fever= very high jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = very high

002: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice =low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = high

003: IF = anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

004: IF anemia = low and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = Low

005: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

006: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = average and fever =average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high THEN malaria = average

007: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting= average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = low

008: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

009: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

010: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

011: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average, THEN Malaria = Low

012: IF anemia = high and nausea = very high and dizziness = very high and fever = average and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = very high and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high, THEN Malaria = Very high

013: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria= Very high

014: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever =very high and jaundice = high and body weakness = very high and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

015: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = low and fever = low jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = High

016: IF anemia = high and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = very high

017: IF anemia =average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

018: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

019: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = Very high

020: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = high and headache =low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

You can define more information on type of sickness in the system .

" style="text-align: justify;">expert system for Malaria diagnosis.   ALGORITHM OF THE FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MALARIA DIAGNOSIS
1. Step Input signs and symptoms of patient complaint into the system. Where m = number of signs and symptoms.
2. Step Search the knowledge-base for the disease, which has the signs and Symptoms identified.
3. Step Get the weighing factors (wf) (the associated degree of intensity) wf  = 1, 2, 3, 4 Where  1 = low, 2 = average, 3 = high, 4 = Very high.
4. Step Apply fuzzy rules.
5. Step Map fuzzy inputs into their respective weighing factors to determine their degree of membership.
6. Step Determine the rule base evaluating (non-minimum values).
7. Step Determine the firing (conclusion) strength of the rules R.
8. Step Calculate the degree of truth R, of each rules by evaluating the nonzero Minimum value.
9. Step Compute the intensity of the disease.
10. Step Output fuzzy diagnosis.
KNOWLEDGE BASE Knowledge is a key factor in the performance of intelligent systems. Knowledge base is a special kind of database for knowledge management which provides a means for information to be collected, organized, shared, searched and utilized. In another term, the knowledge base acts as a repository for information in the expert system. The knowledge base of the fuzzy expert system for the diagnosis of malaria is composed of structured information. The structured knowledge is concerned with facts, rules and events of tropical disease and fuzzy rules which will be used to determine the rate of the disease.

MALARIA SYMPTOMS In this work the following malaria symptoms were considered;
• Fever,
• Nausea,
• Vomiting,
• Enlarge liver,
• Joint pain,
• Dizziness,
• Abdominal pain
• Jaundice
• Anemia
• Body weakness
high headache, this is gotten as 3/4 =0.75 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES By linguistic variables we mean variables whose values are words or sentence in a natural or artificial language. The linguistic variables used in this work are,
Low, Average, High and Very High. By using these linguistic variables, fuzzy IF THEN RULES which are the main output of the fuzzy system would be set up and generally presented in the form of:
IF x is a THEN y is b.
Table 1.0 shows ranges of Fuzzy value In the development of fuzzy expert systems, we construct the ranges of fuzzy value as seen in table 1.0,
then we construct the fuzzy rules structure for the diagnosis of malaria as shown in
Table 2.0
An interpretation of the above rules 001 to 020 are as follows
001: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and Fever= very high jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = very high

002: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice =low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = high

003: IF = anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

004: IF anemia = low and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = Low

005: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

006: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = average and fever =average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high THEN malaria = average

007: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting= average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = low

008: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

009: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

010: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

011: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average, THEN Malaria = Low

012: IF anemia = high and nausea = very high and dizziness = very high and fever = average and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = very high and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high, THEN Malaria = Very high

013: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria= Very high

014: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever =very high and jaundice = high and body weakness = very high and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

015: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = low and fever = low jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = High

016: IF anemia = high and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = very high

017: IF anemia =average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

018: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

019: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = Very high

020: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = high and headache =low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

You can define more information on type of sickness in the system .

" style="text-align: justify;">EXPERT SYSTEM An expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge like an expert, and not by following the procedure of a developer like in conventional system. To run an expert system, the engine reasons about the knowledge base like human. Figure 1.0 shows the architecture of Fuzzy expert system for Malaria diagnosis.   ALGORITHM OF THE FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MALARIA DIAGNOSIS
1. Step Input signs and symptoms of patient complaint into the system. Where m = number of signs and symptoms.
2. Step Search the knowledge-base for the disease, which has the signs and Symptoms identified.
3. Step Get the weighing factors (wf) (the associated degree of intensity) wf  = 1, 2, 3, 4 Where  1 = low, 2 = average, 3 = high, 4 = Very high.
4. Step Apply fuzzy rules.
5. Step Map fuzzy inputs into their respective weighing factors to determine their degree of membership.
6. Step Determine the rule base evaluating (non-minimum values).
7. Step Determine the firing (conclusion) strength of the rules R.
8. Step Calculate the degree of truth R, of each rules by evaluating the nonzero Minimum value.
9. Step Compute the intensity of the disease.
10. Step Output fuzzy diagnosis.
KNOWLEDGE BASE Knowledge is a key factor in the performance of intelligent systems. Knowledge base is a special kind of database for knowledge management which provides a means for information to be collected, organized, shared, searched and utilized. In another term, the knowledge base acts as a repository for information in the expert system. The knowledge base of the fuzzy expert system for the diagnosis of malaria is composed of structured information. The structured knowledge is concerned with facts, rules and events of tropical disease and fuzzy rules which will be used to determine the rate of the disease.

MALARIA SYMPTOMS In this work the following malaria symptoms were considered;
• Fever,
• Nausea,
• Vomiting,
• Enlarge liver,
• Joint pain,
• Dizziness,
• Abdominal pain
• Jaundice
• Anemia
• Body weakness
high headache, this is gotten as 3/4 =0.75 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES By linguistic variables we mean variables whose values are words or sentence in a natural or artificial language. The linguistic variables used in this work are,
Low, Average, High and Very High. By using these linguistic variables, fuzzy IF THEN RULES which are the main output of the fuzzy system would be set up and generally presented in the form of:
IF x is a THEN y is b.
Table 1.0 shows ranges of Fuzzy value In the development of fuzzy expert systems, we construct the ranges of fuzzy value as seen in table 1.0,
then we construct the fuzzy rules structure for the diagnosis of malaria as shown in
Table 2.0
An interpretation of the above rules 001 to 020 are as follows
001: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and Fever= very high jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = very high

002: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice =low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = high

003: IF = anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

004: IF anemia = low and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = Low

005: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

006: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = average and fever =average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high THEN malaria = average

007: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting= average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = low

008: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

009: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

010: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

011: IF anemia = low and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = low and enlarge liver = average and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average, THEN Malaria = Low

012: IF anemia = high and nausea = very high and dizziness = very high and fever = average and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = very high and vomiting = low and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = high, THEN Malaria = Very high

013: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = very high and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = average and headache = very high and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria= Very high

014: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = high and fever =very high and jaundice = high and body weakness = very high and enlarge liver = average and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = low THEN Malaria = very high

015: IF anemia = average and nausea = low and dizziness = low and fever = low jaundice = low and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = low and headache = low and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = High

016: IF anemia = high and nausea = average and dizziness = average and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = very high

017: IF anemia =average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = low and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = low and headache = average and vomiting = average and joint pain = low and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

018: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = low and fever = average and jaundice = average and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = High

019: IF anemia = average and nausea = high and dizziness = high and fever = high and jaundice = high and body weakness = high and enlarge liver = high and headache = high and vomiting = high and joint pain = high and loss of appetite = high THEN Malaria = Very high

020: IF anemia = average and nausea = average and dizziness = high and fever = average and jaundice = low and body weakness = average and enlarge liver = high and headache =low and vomiting = average and joint pain = average and loss of appetite = average THEN Malaria = Average

You can define more information on type of sickness in the system .