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1.1 Background to the Study
RiceistheseedofthemonocotplantOryzasativaofthegrassfamilyGramineae. (Kadiri et al., 2014). RiceisanincreasinglyimportantcropinNigeria.Itisrelativelyeasytoproduceanditisgrown forsale and for home consumption. In some areas thereis a longtradition of ricegrowing, but formany,itisconsideredaluxury foodforspecialoccasions.However, withtheincreased availability ofrice,ithasbecomepartoftheeverydaydietofmanypeopleinNigeria.There aremanyvarietiesofricegrowninNigeria;someofthesearetraditionalvarietieswhileothers havebeen introduced into the country. Riceisgrown virtuallyinalltheagro-ecological zones inNigeria (Kadiri et al., 2014).Thisisbecause,Nigeria has idealclimatic conditionswhichis akin to that ofSouth East Asiawherethe crop is produced for export. Ricecultivationistheprincipalactivityandsourceofincomeformillionsofhouseholds aroundtheglobe.SeveralcountriesinAsiaarehighly dependentonriceassources offoreignexchangeearningsand governmentrevenues.(Kadiri et al., 2014)
Riceisthesecond largestproducedcerealintheworldafterwheat,itisacropthatcutsacrossregional,religious, cultural,nationalandinternationalboundarieswithvery highdemand.Starch is themajorconstituentof rice,andmakesupto 90%ofricein dry weight. Considerable attentionhas beengiventotheproductionofdifferentbeveragesfromvarious sugary substratessuchas starchy materials like rice,wheat,barley etc.Mostbiological processesconcernedwiththeconversionofstarchy materialsintoalcoholicbeverageshas three steps, liquefaction of starch, enzymaticsaccharification and fermentation.Thewell-knownfermentedricefoodsin liquidform arericewine,ricebeer,and rice vinegar(Karthikeyan et al., 2014).
Rice wineisproduced byamylolytic process, whichistheconversion ofstarchintosugarbytheactionofacidsorenzymes like amylase (Subhasree, 2010).Wine isa fermentedbeverageofcereals,freshfruits, etc.Winefrom
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