AVAILABILITY OF LABORATORY FACILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SHIP BUILDING IN MARITIME ACADEMY OF NIGERIA

AVAILABILITY OF LABORATORY FACILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SHIP BUILDING IN MARITIME ACADEMY OF NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study  

Education, according to Coombs (1970) consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students’ interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Savoury (1958) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching history i.e pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models. He said that selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson, helps in depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach history. He advocated the use of pictures which will help children in grounding their thoughts and feelings.  He said that pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is impossible to show students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in tan imagined activities. It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum. Without the lecturers as implementing factors, the goals of education can never be achieved. In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1981), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified lecturers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools. Scarcity of these, according to Coombs (1970), wills constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands.

In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (1975) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort.

Another variables seeing enhancing student ability in ship building is laboratory equipment, laboratory equipment according to Umoh and Etuk (2003) are facilities where an individual or groups of students study some concepts, phenomena or processes. They further disclosed that a laboratory is a place where a supervised learning ability is carried out by the students studying a particular phenomena involving practical application of theory. Activities in the laboratories involve observation, measurements, recording, experimentation, hypothesizing, analysis, interpretations and inferences. Shannon (1989) studied the influence of laboratory facilities on students’ achievement and skills acquisition in soil concepts, the findings revealed that laboratory facilities significantly influence students’ skills acquisition in soil concepts.

Also, textual instructional materials are composed of newspapers, community news letters, wire services, magazines and other publications. Magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising,  (Farlex, 2003).

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history Lucas, (2012).

          Ship building is one of the oldest industries in some developed nations like United States and other developing countries like Nigeria with roots in the earliest colonial settlements. Shipbuilding quickly became a successful and profitable industry, with its miles of coastline featuring protected harbors and bays, and extensive supplies of raw materials. The early wooden vessels built for commercial fishing and foreign trade also gave rise to a variety of ancillary trades and industries in the area, including sail making, chandleries, rope walks and marine railways. Shipyards in Nigeria are credited with strengthened the merchandise James, (2004).

According to Park, (2007) ship construction today is a complicated compound of art and science. In the great days of sail, vessels were designed and built on the basis of practical experience; ship construction was predominantly a skill. With the rapid growth and development of the physical sciences, beginning in the early 19th century, it was inevitable that hydrokinetics (the study of fluids in motion), hydrostatics (the study of fluids at rest), and the science of materials and structures should augment the shipbuilder’s skill. The consequence of this was a rapid increase in the size, speed, commercial value, and safety of ships Green, (2001).

 

1.2    Statement of Problem                 

The school system in Nigeria as well as Maritime Academy has suffered a lot of setback. This setback at times is caused by many factors such as inadequate reagents in the laboratory, availability of non- textual instructional materials, laboratory equipment and facilities, textual materials etc.

          In most government owned marine academy across the nations of the world and in Nigeria in particular, instructional materials and facilities and equipment such as water, electricity, library, laboratory, toilets, tables, chairs, etc are inadequate. These impede students from achieving the desired results in their various subjects including ship building. These factors constitute a serious threat to better academic performance in the schools. The problem of this study therefore centers on availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria

1.3    Purpose of the Study

        The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria while the specific objectives were:

1.   To examine the effect of laboratory reagents on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria

2.   To examine the effect of adequacy of non-textual instructional materials on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria

3.   To examine the effect of adequacy of laboratory equipment on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study  

This work will be of benefit to the Ministry of transport. This study is also expected to be of immense help to the Government, Maritime academy across the nation, Policy makers and Implementers.

The result of this study is expected to provide data for planning, as well as provide additional stock of maritime academy data for other researchers, who might find it relevant and useful in their enquiries. The study will fill the gap of knowledge of what has not been done by the past researchers who conducted almost similar study. The researcher will offer to the solution of some practical or theoretical problems.

 

 

1.5        Research questions  

1.      What is the effect of laboratory reagents on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria.

2.      What is the effect of adequacy of non-textual instructional          materials on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria.

3.      What is the effect of adequacy of laboratory equipment on          students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria.

 

1.6    Hypotheses      

1.   There is no significant effect of laboratory reagents on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria

2.   There is no significant effect of adequacy of non-textual instructional materials on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria

3.   There is no significant effect of adequacy of laboratory equipment on students ship building in maritime academy of Nigeria.

 

 

1.7    Limitation of the Study       

The materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation and even the decision to use questionnaire in data collection constituted some limitation of the study, that is, how to get the true and required information from the workers.

Finally, there was an anticipation of the problem of convincing the respondents on the filling of the questionnaires and to give the true and required information. But for the quick intervention the administrative officer who took time to clear the air and convince their colleague, helped me to accomplish my assignment.


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