ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF VINEGAR, HONEY, BLACK PEPPER, GINGER AND MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON WOUND ISOLATE

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF VINEGAR, HONEY, BLACK PEPPER, GINGER AND MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON WOUND ISOLATE

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Abstract

Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporus were studied by applying vinegar suspension on both blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus at 4oC and 27oC. Treated blanched Agaricus bisporus which were stored at 4oC showed least microbial load as compared to other blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus kept at 4oC and 27oC. Based on survey analysis minimal change was observed in sensory quality, color and texture on Agaricus bisporus due to applied suspension.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Herbs and spices have several roles in the human diet and their part is not replaceable. They have been used for thousands of years to enhance the flavor, color and aroma of food. In Ayurveda there are many spices that are described for improving health and taste of foods. In addition to boosting flavor, herbs and spices are also known for their preservative and medicinal value which forms one of the oldest sciences. Now days many scientist are trying to prove their biological properties like antibacterial, anticancerous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. Vinegar which is a fermented product of starches or sugars can be produced from rice, wheat, malt, apple, onion and various agriculture materials. Sugar or starch fermented first to alcohol and then the alcohol is oxidized by certain bacteria to acetic acid. It is now a relatively common practice to bottle vegetables and herbs and spices in either oil, vinegar or a mixture of both. All plant materials contain various pigments some of which change color as the pH of the plant tissue is changed by the addition of vinegar or other acids. The most common of these pigments are the anthocyanin which may be blue, colorless or red depending on the pH. Agaricus bisporus commonly known as button mushroom forms a large group of edible mushrooms. Mushrooms can be preserved by canning, freezing, drying, and pickling-using vinegar-either alone or in combination with herbs/spice extracts. Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar or blossoms from the secretion of living parts of plants or excretions of plants which honey bees collect transform and combine with specific substances of their own to ripen and mature. One of the most important features of honey is that it can be kept for a long period of time without becoming spoiled. The anti-microbial activity varies depending on the type of spice or herb. The need to which a spice material is used as a spice is dictated primarily by its essential oils or oleoresins. Black pepper is native to India and a major spice crop of Kerala. It has been proved that it have antimicrobial activity. Piperine ([1-[5-[1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl]-1-oxo-2,4, pentadienylpiperidine), a pungent alkaloid present in black pepper, responsible for the therapeutically and biological activity. Ginger a common substance found increasingly in the diets of the global population, have known antibacterial effects and are commonly used together in teas. Many studies have implicated Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogeneas leading causative agents of both community and hospital acquire infections. Ginger has been valued for its antibacterial properties for thousands of years in Asian cultures. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of those plants that were seriously investigated over the years. It has been used in centuries to fight infection. Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhoea which is leading cause of infant death in developing countries. The most well-known member of Zingiber (ginger) is Zingiber officinale. In many parts of the world, Z. officinale has medicinal and culinary values. The volatile oil gingerol and other pungent principles not only give ginger its pungent aroma, but are the most medically powerful because they inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene formation, which are products that influence blood flow and inflammation. Honey produced by Appis mellifera is a sweet food made from the synthesis of nectar from flowers, plant saps and man waste products. Honey is a mixture of sugars mainly fructose and glucose having the highest percentage among other carbohydrates present. Antimicrobial agents with selective toxicity are especially useful as a chemotherapeutic agent in treating infectious diseases and may be a function of specific receptor requirement for drug attachment or it may depend on the inhibition of biochemical events essential to the pathogen but not to the host. A member of Zingiberaceae family has shown significant antibacterial activity on pathogenic bacteria. The volatile oils are responsible for the aroma and taste of most spices. These volatile oils contain terpenes, sesquiterpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols etc. The application of extracts of spice could possibly control the microbial activities associated with food samples while retaining the nutritive and economic quality. The acid from the vinegar tends to neutralize the base earthiness and hence, have special applications in mushroom preservation. In our work, we have tried to investigate the antimicrobial and preservative properties of honey, ginger and vinegar with special reference to the shelf life extension of commonly edible button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

Wound Healing

Healing of wounds starts from the moment of injury and can continue for varying periods of time depending on the extent of injury area and the process can be broadly categorized into three stages; inflammatory phase, proliferate phase, and finally the remodeling phase which ultimately determines the strength and appearance of the healed tissue (Ayyanar & Ignacimuthu, 2009; Sumitra et al., 2005). Wound healing is a complex series of interrelated events that are mediated through the phases by a wide range of chemically co-ordinate cellular processes as well as hormonal influences (Chan et al., 2008). Chemical mediators such as growth factors, cytokines (small protein hormones that influence normal cell function) and chemokines (chemical mediators with a powerful chemotactic ability) combine to co-ordinate the healing process (Chan et al., 2008). These combine to return the damage tissue to as near normal function as possible, thereby allowing the body to repair injured tissue and restore skin integrity.

The process highly required the coordinated integration of cellular, physiological, biochemical events and molecular process, which result ultimately in connective tissue repair and the formation of fibrous scar (Hardy, 1989). Wound healing starts immediately after damage has occurred, but the mechanism and speed of healing, and the eventual nature of the regenerated tissue, depend on the type of wound. 

However, the process depends on the types of tissue which has been damaged and the nature of the tissue disruption (Hardy, 1989). In wound healing, the wound environment change with the changing individual health status (Hardy, 1989).

Therefore this study is hoped to throw an insight on the wound healing activity of J.Sambac and H.Colorata especially in patients there by reducing the effect of amputation.

Peptic Ulcer

Usually Peptic ulcer occurs beside duodenum and stomach where can be observed in the gastric mucosa. Due to many changes in our life style make peptic ulcer amongst common diseases is associated with sore in stomach. Clinical symptoms and complications are as nausea, vomiting, severe epigastric sore, cardiac burning, losing eating desire (loss of appetite) (Ramakrishnan & Salinas, 2007a). The predominant reasons cause peptic ulcer is H.pylori and NSAID’s intake. 

It has been considered as common to cure ulcer is to avoid acidity related meals, avoiding consuming of ulcerogenic drinks and enough rest is strongly recommended. Over all, availability of certain medicines used to cure ulcer in a long term doses as PPI (Proton Pump Inhibitor) healing is promised(Vakil & Fennerty, 2003). Recurrent of disease, side effects of using various drugs leads to drug resistant and cure doesn’t not reach to the level required entirely healing. Replasing has increased disease management cost whether in drugs cost and other exhibited needful (Alhaider et al., 2007). 

Common medicinal plants used to treat different degrees of peptic ulcer and other related diseases with gastric sore. Currently, folk medicine is growing globally and eastern world of developing countries considered herbs are the only choice of treatment.(Heinrich et al., 2004). Medicinal plants are the main source of primary and secondary active compounds such as alkaloid, flavenoid, terpinoid, tannins and others that involving direct or indirect to our health life( Falcão et al., 2008).Nowdays, pharmacological aspects on medicinal plants is attention of many scientists to investigate alternate medicines.

Many Malaysian plants used daily in our food as spice or flavor to give taste and preventive medicine. On the other hands, these plants are used traditionally to treat various diseases. Traditionally, hundreds of medicinal plants as well involved to boost and treat other human being ailments. Some such as Phylanthus nirur, Melatoma malabathicum (Hussain et al., 2008)  suggested earlier contents of bioactive capacity to have cytogastroprotective properties in gastric mucosa. In this research project, basically on their used traditionally, two selected medicinal plants were used to study their cytogastroprotective properties in vivo. Some research studies have proved availability of toxic in few Malaysian plants in experimental animals and possible to human as well due to compounds activities. Toxicity evaluation of every medicinal plant is essential and vital procedure for any future commercial desire in product.

General practice physicians prescribe the current available medicines for peptic ulcer on suppressing and inhibition gastric acid secreted in gastric mucosa area as acid dependence provided by the sucralfate and bismuth, anti-muscalarins and omeprazole (Bighetti et al., 2005). The percentage of recurrence in ulcer patients is high despite the therapy on proton pump inhibition and H2 antagonist for a month to 6 weeks. However,

the gastroduodenal ulcer healing is between 80~100% and recurrent within a year from the day of stopping management is about 40~80%(Miller & Faragher, 1986).

Despite, all these available drugs can cause aggressive reactions. Hence, more work is needed to seek for a safe, secured anti-ulcer and more effective (Ariyphisi et al.). 

Several beneficial plant extracts are used for the inhibition of unwarranted gastric secretions, or to enhance mucosal defense mechanism, shift in proton pump, stabilizing surface epithelial cells or interfering with prostaglandin synthesis (Reyes-Trejo et al., 2008). Moreover, the plant extract are the important source for the new drug development due to more safety and high antioxidant composition.

Several medicinal plant extracts have been evaluated for enhancing mucosal defense metabolism, inhibition of undesired mucosal secretions, stabilized epithelial surface in order to enhance production of prostaglandin and to shift pump proton. (Reyes-Trejo et al., 2008).In addition, plants are better source of safe new drug discovery and rich of antioxidant capacity.

 Therefore this study is hoped to throw an insight on the wound healing activity of J.sambac and H.colorata. Gastric is vital organ for food digestion and push out the chyme into duodenum for absorption process. The last step in digested chyme processed in gastrointestinal for absorption of essential elements, liquids and important nutrients. Normal metabolism takes place in healthy adult either at nutritional state, water level and other important elements might be interrupted by mild or sever ulcer(Sundaram et al., 2002).Gastro duodenal ulcer and wound becomes main reason for intestinal surgery which lead to increase mortality and morbidity. More in eastern world than western part of the world and varying prevalence’s over the world(Yuan et al., 2006).Peptic ulcer is increasing within the population worldwide and scientists are expecting to involve significantly to improve awareness in ulcer, quality life of patients and economic system(Falcão et al., 2008). Moreover, nowadays brufen, and aspirin (NSAIDs) are customs drug in many family which is aggressive tool to damage gastric mucosa which cause ulcer. Hence, researchers are looking for alternate medicine which safe and secured gastro protective and anti gastric ulcer to avoid any adverse reaction. Potential and promises medicinal plants, crude extracts and other form of natural products are widely used to cure diseases and mucosa ulcer damage (Al Mofleh et al., 2008).

Scope of study

The study was limited to the Antimicrobial activity of honey, ginger, black pepper, vinegar and mushroom extract on wound isolate. Bioactivity studies of the active compounds were evaluated in vivo to determine cytogastroprotective and possible mechanisms.


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